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Conjectures And Refutations

Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135971307
Size: 52.60 MB
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Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Rational Changes In Science

Author: Joseph C. Pitt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400937792
Size: 49.18 MB
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THE PROBLEMS OF SCIENTIFIC RATIONALITY Fashion is a fickle mistress. Only yesterday scientific rationality enjoyed considerable attention, consideration, and even reverence among phi losophers; "but today's fashion leads us to despise it, and the matron, rejected and abandoned as Hecuba, complains; modo maxima rerum, tot generis natisque potens - nunc trahor exui, inops", to cite Kant for our purpose, who cited Ovid for his. Like every fashion, ours also has its paradoxical aspects, as John Watkins correctly reminds in an essay in this volume. Enthusiasm for science was high among philosophers when significant scientific results were mostly a promise, it declined when that promise became an undeniable reality. Nevertheless, as with the decline of any fashion, even the revolt against scientific rationality has some reasonable grounds. If the taste of the philosophical community has changed so much, it is not due to an incident or a whim. This volume is not about the history of and reasons for this change. Instead, it provides a view of the new emerging image of scientific rationality in both its philosophical and historical aspects. In particular, the aim of the contributions gathered here is to focus on the concept around which the discussions about rationality have mostly taken place: scientific change.

Appraising Lakatos

Author: György Kampis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401707693
Size: 77.72 MB
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Imre Lakatos (1922-1974) was one of the protagonists in shaping the "new philosophy of science". More than 25 years after his untimely death, it is time for a critical re-evaluation of his ideas. His main theme of locating rationality within the scientific process appears even more compelling today, after many historical case studies have revealed the cultural and societal elements within scientific practices. Recently there has been, above all, an increasing interest in Lakatos' philosophy of mathematics, which emphasises heuristics and mathematical practice over logical justification. But suitable modifications of his approach are called for in order to make it applicable to modern axiomatised theories. Pioneering historical research in England and Hungary has unearthed hitherto unknown facts about Lakatos' personal life, his wartime activities and his involvement in the political developments of post-war Europe. From a communist activist committed to Györgyi Lukács' thinking, Lakatos developed into a staunch anti-Marxist who found his intellectual background in Popper's critical rationalism. The volume also publishes for the first time a part of his Debrecen Ph.D. thesis and it is concluded by a bibliography of his Hungarian writings.

Fault Lines And Controversies In The Study Of Seventeenth Century English Literature

Author: Claude J. Summers
Publisher: University of Missouri Press
ISBN: 9780826264084
Size: 42.67 MB
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Written by various experts in the field, this volume of thirteen original essays explores some of the most significant theoretical and practical fault lines and controversies in seventeenth-century English literature. The turn into the twenty-first century is an appropriate time to take stock of the state of the field, and, as part of that stocktaking, the need arises to assess both where literary study of the early modern period has been and where it might desirably go. Hence, many of the essays in this collection look both backward and forward. They chart the changes in the field over the past half century, while also looking forward to more change in the future.

Conjectures Et R Futations

Author: Karl Raimund Popper
Publisher:
ISBN: 9782228900584
Size: 35.74 MB
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Comment la connaissance scientifique progresse-t-elle ? grâce à l'erreur. Des conjectures sont tout d'abord formées : on devine, on essaie des solutions. Puis ces conjectures sont soumises à la critique, c'est-à-dire à des tentatives de réfutation : on les teste. Dès qu'une théorie est réfutée, un progrès a été accompli, qui nous rapproche de la vérité ? Mais pourrons-nous jamais atteindre celle-ci. ? Conjectures et réfutations contient l'essentiel de la philosophie de Karl R. Popper (1902-1997) et prolonge, en la complétant par de nouveaux développements, sa célèbre Logique de la découverte scientifique.

Basic Principles And Practical Applications In Epidemiological Research

Author: Jung-Der Wang
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810249250
Size: 34.29 MB
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Based on the concept of ?conjecture and refutation? from the Popperian philosophy of science, i.e. looking for alternative causes, this book simplifies the design and inferences of human observational studies into two types: descriptive and causal. It clarifies how and why causal inference should be considered from the search for alternative explanations or causes, and descriptive inference from the sample at hand to the source population. Furthermore, it links the health policy and epidemiological concept with decisional questions, for which the basic measurement can be quality-adjusted survival time or quality-adjusted life year.

Individualism In Modern Thought

Author: Lorenzo Infantino
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317798317
Size: 32.28 MB
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This book is a comprehensive survey of methodological individualism in social, political and economic thought from the Enlightenment to the 20th century. Exploring the works of such figures as de Mandeville, Smith, Marx, Spencer, Durkheim, Simmel, Weber, Hayek, Popper and Parsons, this study underlines the contrasts between methodological collectivism and methodological individualism. The detailed analysis offered here also reveals the theoretical presuppositions behind the collectivist and individualist traditions and the practical consequences of their applications. Infantino concludes in favour of individualism.