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Continents And Supercontinents

Author: John J. W. Rogers
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195347333
Size: 36.54 MB
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To this day, there is a great amount of controversy about where, when and how the so-called supercontinents--Pangea, Godwana, Rodinia, and Columbia--were made and broken. Continents and Supercontinents frames that controversy by giving all the necessary background on how continental crust is formed, modified, and destroyed, and what forces move plates. It also discusses how these processes affect the composition of seawater, climate, and the evolution of life. Rogers and Santosh begin with a survey of plate tectonics, and go on to describe the composition, production, and destruction of continental and oceanic crust, and show that cratons or assemblies of cratons became the first true continents, approximately one billion years after the earliest continental crust evolved. The middle part of the book concentrates on supercontinents, beginning with a discussion of types of orogenic belts, distinguishing those that formed by closure of an ocean basin within the belt and those that formed by intracontinental deformation caused by stresses generated elsewhere. This information permits discrimination between models of supercontinent formation by accretion of numerous small terranes and by reorganization of large old continental blocks. This background leads to a description of the assembly and fragmentation of supercontinents throughout earth history. The record is most difficult to interpret for the oldest supercontinent, Columbia, and also controversial for Rodinia, the next youngest supercontinent. The configurations and pattern of breakup of Gondwana and Pangea are well known, but some aspects of their assembly are unclear. The book also briefly describes the histories of continents after the breakup of Pangea, and discusses how changes in the composition of seawater, climate, and life may have been affected by the sizes and locations of continents and supercontinents.

Island Continents And Supercontinents

Author: Bruce McClish
Publisher: Heinemann-Raintree Library
ISBN: 9781403429896
Size: 66.11 MB
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Briefly describes the landscape, weather, plants, animals, and famous attractions of the continents of Australia and Antarctica.

Australia And Antarctica

Author: Bruce McClish
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781740701297
Size: 43.11 MB
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This series supports the study of continents, providing information on each continent as well as the way continents affect the whole world - oceans, climate, plants, animals and human culture. The books emphasize the relationship between the continents, with facts, statistics and illustrations.

Supercontinent

Author: Ted Nield
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674026599
Size: 34.98 MB
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Looks at the Supercontinent Cycle; explores the history of its discovery; and includes discussion of Pangaea, the fusing of all of Earth's landmasses, and the lesser-known Rodinia, which existed approximately one thousand million years ago.

Palaeoproterozoic Supercontinents And Global Evolution

Author: Steven Michael Reddy
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 9781862392830
Size: 66.64 MB
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The Palaeoproterozoic era (2500-1600 Ma) is a critical period of Earth history, with dynamic evolution from the deep planetary interior to its surface environment. Several lines of geological evidence suggest the existence of at least one pre-Rodinia supercontinent, named Nuna or Columbia, which formed near the end of Palaeoproterozoic time. Prior to this assembly, there may have been an older supercontinent (Kenorland) or perhaps only independently drifting supercratons. The tectonic records of amalgamation and dispersal of these ancient landmasses provide a framework that links processes of the deep Earth with those of its fluid envelope. The sixteen papers in this volume present reviews and new analytical data that span the geological record of Palaeoproterozoic Earth. The volume is useful as a reference book for students and professional geoscientists interested in this important period of global evolution.

Supercontinents

Author: Source Wikipedia
Publisher: University-Press.org
ISBN: 9781230588797
Size: 75.53 MB
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 36. Chapters: Afro-Eurasia, Afro-Eurasia-America, Amasia (continent), Americas, Columbia (supercontinent), Euramerica, Gondwana, Great Lakes tectonic zone, Kenorland, Laurasia, List of supercontinents, Nena (supercontinent), Novopangaea, Pangaea Ultima, Pannotia, Rodinia, Supercontinent cycle, Ur (continent), Vaalbara.

Earth As An Evolving Planetary System

Author: Kent C. Condie
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123852277
Size: 75.17 MB
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Earth as an Evolving Planetary System, Second Edition, examines the various subsystems that play a role in the evolution of the Earth. These subsystems include such components as the crust, mantle, core, atmosphere, oceans, and life. The book contains 10 chapters that discuss the structure of the Earth and plate tectonics; the origin and evolution of the crust; the processes that leave tectonic imprints in rocks and modern processes responsible for these imprints; and the structure of the mantle and the core. The book also covers the Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere; crustal and mantle evolution; the supercontinent cycle; great events in Earth history; and the Earth in comparison to other planets. This book is meant for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Earth Sciences, with a basic knowledge of geology, biology, chemistry, and physics. It also may serve as a reference tool for specialists in the geologic sciences who want to keep abreast of scientific advances in this field. Slides of all figures in the book can be downloaded on the companion site: http://www.elsevierdirect.com/companion.jsp?ISBN=9780123852274 Kent Condie's corresponding interactive CD, Plate Tectonics and How the Earth Works, can be purchased from Tasa Graphic Arts here: http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progptearth.html Two new chapters on the Supercontinent Cycle and on Great Events in Earth history New and updated sections on Earth's thermal history, planetary volcanism, planetary crusts, the onset of plate tectonics, changing composition of the oceans and atmosphere, and paleoclimatic regimes Also new in this Second Edition: the lower mantle and the role of the post-perovskite transition, the role of water in the mantle, new tomographic data tracking plume tails into the deep mantle, Euxinia in Proterozoic oceans, The Hadean, A crustal age gap at 2.4-2.2 Ga, and continental growth

Climate A Very Short Introduction

Author: Mark Maslin
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191653934
Size: 49.19 MB
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In this wide-ranging Very Short Introduction to climate, Mark Maslin considers all aspects of the global climate system, exploring and explaining the different components that control climate on Earth. He considers the processes that allow energy to reach the Earth and how it is redistributed around the planet by the ocean-atmosphere system; the relationship and differences between climate and the weather; how climate has affected life on Earth and human settlements; and the cyclic and quasi-cyclic features of climate such as the Milankovitch cycles and El Nino. He concludes by touching on the issue of climate change, and outlines some of the approaches that are now being taken to tackle it. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The Digital Jepson Manual

Author: Bruce G. Baldwin
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520952898
Size: 42.19 MB
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The second edition of The Jepson Manual thoroughly updates this acclaimed work, the single most comprehensive resource on California's amazingly diverse flora. This work integrates the latest science, the results of intensive fieldwork, institutional collaboration, and the efforts of hundreds of contributing authors into an essential reference on California's native and naturalized vascular plants. For the first time, the University of California Press is offering this resource as an e-book. The Digital Jepson Manual provides an unparalleled new level of interactivity, portability, and convenience. Extensive linking and e-book–friendly illustrations make it easier for users to learn about plant characteristics and identify the native and naturalized plants of California—all in a format ideally suited for use in the field. Using readily available e-book readers, field researchers, students, and enthusiasts can click on links to rapidly navigate through keys to families, genera, species, and subspecies or varieties. Specific features of The Digital Jepson Manual include the following: —Keys link forward and backward to other taxonomic levels. —Plate references in taxonomic treatments link to plates for rapid reference. —Plate captions link to taxonomic treatments. —Individual taxon figures appear next to species descriptions, and full plates are gathered in a special section. —Glossary terms link to any relevant illustrations. —List of families links each family to its taxonomic treatment. —Index is fully linked to taxonomic treatments. Optimal devices: iPad, Kindle Fire (but only after conversion) Will also work on: Computers, Barnes and Noble Nook, Kindle (after conversion)

The Origin Of Continents And Oceans

Author: Alfred Wegener
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486143899
Size: 64.71 MB
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A source of profound influence and controversy, this landmark 1915 work explains various phenomena of historical geology, geomorphy, paleontology, paleoclimatology, and similar areas in terms of continental drift. 64 illustrations. 1966 edition.