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Contract And Property In Early Modern China

Author: Madeleine Zelin
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804766940
Size: 42.90 MB
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Providing a new perspective on economic and legal institutions, particularly on contract and property, in Qing and Republican history, this volume provides case studies to explicate how these institutions worked, while situating them firmly in their broader social context.

The Merchants Of Zigong

Author: Madeleine Zelin
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231135962
Size: 51.67 MB
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From its dramatic expansion in the early nineteenth century to its decline in the late 1930s, salt production in Zigong was one of the largest and only indigenous large-scale industries in China. Madeleine Zelin's history details the novel ways in which Zigong merchants mobilized capital through financial-industrial networks and spurred growth by developing new technologies, capturing markets, and building integrated business organizations. She provides new insight into the forces and institutions that shaped Chinese economic and social development (independent of Western or Japanese influence) and challenges long-held beliefs that social structure, state extraction, the absence of modern banking, and cultural bias against business precluded industrial development in China.

The Economy Of Lower Yangzi Delta In Late Imperial China

Author: Billy K. L. So
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136237224
Size: 37.71 MB
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Historically, the Lower Yangzi Delta (or Jiangnan), has played a key role in China’s economic development. Indeed, as the prime example of a traditional Chinese market economy, the region serves as the core case study when making comparisons between the Chinese and Western economies in the early modern period. This book explores aspects of this vibrant market economy in late imperial China, and by presenting a reconstructed narrative of economic development in the early modern Jiangnan, provides new perspectives on established theories of Chinese economic development. Further, by examining economic values alongside social structures, this book produces a historically comprehensive account of the contemporary Chinese economy which engenders a deeper and broader understanding of China’s current economic success. With a broad range of empirical case studies which incorporate a range of social science and cultural theories, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of Chinese history, as well as Chinese economics and business.

Realms Of Freedom In Modern China

Author: William C. Kirby
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804752329
Size: 74.97 MB
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The fifteenth and final volume of the series The Making of Modern Freedom, this book explores a variety of issues surrounding questions of human rights and freedom in China. The chapters suggest very significant realms of freedom, with or without the protection of law, in the personal, social, and economic lives of people in China before the twentieth century. This was recognized, and partly codified, in the early twentieth century, when legal experts sought to establish a republic of laws and limits. The process of legal reform, however, would be placed firmly in the service of strengthening the post-imperial Chinese nation-state, culminating after 1949 in despotism unparalleled in Chinese history. Nevertheless, the last decades of the twentieth century and the first years of our own would witness a slow, steady, but unmistakable reassertion of realms of personal and communal autonomy that show, even in an era of strong states, at least the prospect of institutionalized freedoms.

The Chinese Cornerstone Of Modern Banking

Author: Frederic Delano Grant, Jr.
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9004276564
Size: 35.41 MB
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The Chinese Cornerstone of Modern Banking: The Canton Guaranty System and the Origins of Bank Deposit Insurance 1780-1933, by Frederic Delano Grant, Jr., details the evolution of modern deposit insurance from collective responsibility for debt enforced under the Canton System.

The Tragedy Of Liberation

Author: Frank Dikötter
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1408837595
Size: 79.71 MB
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In 1949 Mao Zedong hoisted the red flag over Beijing's Forbidden City. Instead of liberating the country, the communists destroyed the old order and replaced it with a repressive system that would dominate every aspect of Chinese life. In an epic of revolution and violence which draws on newly opened party archives, interviews and memoirs, Frank Dikötter interweaves the stories of millions of ordinary people with the brutal politics of Mao's court. A gripping account of how people from all walks of life were caught up in a tragedy that sent at least five million civilians to their deaths.

Grounds Of Judgment

Author: P?r Kristoffer Cassel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199924287
Size: 19.68 MB
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Perhaps more than anywhere else in the world, the nineteenth century encounter between East Asia and the Western world has been narrated as a legal encounter. Commercial treaties--negotiated by diplomats and focused on trade--framed the relationships among Tokugawa-Meiji Japan, Qing China, Choson Korea, and Western countries including Britain, France, and the United States. These treaties created a new legal order, very different than the colonial relationships that the West forged with other parts of the globe, which developed in dialogue with local precedents, local understandings of power, and local institutions. They established the rules by which foreign sojourners worked in East Asia, granting them near complete immunity from local laws and jurisdiction. The laws of extraterritoriality looked similar on paper but had very different trajectories in different East Asian countries. P?r Cassel's first book explores extraterritoriality and the ways in which Western power operated in Japan and China from the 1820s to the 1920s. In Japan, the treaties established in the 1850s were abolished after drastic regime change a decade later and replaced by European-style reciprocal agreements by the turn of the century. In China, extraterritoriality stood for a hundred years, with treaties governing nearly one hundred treaty ports, extensive Christian missionary activity, foreign controlled railroads and mines, and other foreign interests, and of such complexity that even international lawyers couldn't easily interpret them. Extraterritoriality provided the springboard for foreign domination and has left Asia with a legacy of suspicion towards international law and organizations. The issue of unequal treaties has had a lasting effect on relations between East Asia and the West. Drawing on primary sources in Chinese, Japanese, Manchu, and several European languages, Cassel has written the first book to deal with exterritoriality in Sino-Japanese relations before 1895 and the triangular relationship between China, Japan, and the West. Grounds of Judgment is a groundbreaking history of Asian engagement with the outside world and within the region, with broader applications to understanding international history, law, and politics.

The Laws And Economics Of Confucianism

Author: Taisu Zhang
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107141117
Size: 33.44 MB
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Tying together cultural history, legal history, and institutional economics, The Laws and Economics of Confucianism: Kinship and Property in Pre-Industrial China and England offers a novel argument as to why Chinese and English pre-industrial economic development went down different paths. The dominance of Neo-Confucian social hierarchies in Late Imperial and Republican China, under which advanced age and generational seniority were the primary determinants of sociopolitical status, allowed many poor but senior individuals to possess status and political authority highly disproportionate to their wealth. In comparison, landed wealth was a fairly strict prerequisite for high status and authority in the far more 'individualist' society of early modern England, essentially excluding low-income individuals from secular positions of prestige and leadership. Zhang argues that this social difference had major consequences for property institutions and agricultural production.

Fenjia

Author: David Wakefield
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN: 9780824820923
Size: 51.28 MB
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The division of household property in agricultural societies lies at the center of the transmission of economic control from one generation to the next. In assembling an impressive body of data concerned with fenjia (household division) in Qing (1644-1912) and Republican (1912-1949) China, David Wakefield investigates one of the central topics in understanding how Chinese society functioned and continues to function. Throughout this work, Wakefield brings diverse considerations to bear on the study of inheritance and family. Economic issues, such as family survival strategies, upward and downward social mobility, and the preservation of wealth are weighed; the importance of social class is considered; the wide variety of Chinese family and lineage property practices is carefully examined; women and the nuclear family are studied; family documents, village investigations, and law are analyzed.

Chinese Business History

Author: Robert Gardella
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
ISBN: 9780765603463
Size: 33.15 MB
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This study focuses on how Chinese business organization, practice, and success have been interpreted in the historical literature. By introducing various interpretations of China's economic development (including the impact of the West, modernization, and Marxist, Weberian, and revisionist approaches), as well as Western business history theory, the book establishes a basis for constructing an appropriate framework for future research.