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Corrective And Distributive Justice

Author: Izhak Englard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199748438
Size: 58.45 MB
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Corrective and Distributive Justice: From Aristotle to Modern Times retraces the intricate history of the distinction between corrective and distributive justice. This distinction is elaborated in the 5th book of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, which was rediscovered in Western Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries by the Scholastics and turned into a central topic in legal and theological scholarship. After a decline of interest in the wake of the enlightenment and secularization, a surprising revival of these notions of justice occurred in U.S. legal and philosophical discourse during the last four decades that has made this distinction a central issue in tort law, restitution and other important fields of private and public law. In literally hundreds of articles and a considerable number of books, the Aristotelian distinction has been elaborated, discussed, and applied. Englard's unique contribution to this aspect of legal history grants the contemporary reader a historical perspective that is vital for a deepened understanding of the distinction and modern concerns. Organized chronologically, Englard's research covers: Aristotle, High Scholastics, Late Scholastics, Post-Scholastics, and Modernity. The relevant literature is notoriously difficult to access, not only because of its Latin language, but because of the physical rarity of the relevant books scattered throughout the world. This book offers the modern reader a touchstone synthesis of intellectual and legal history.

Fundamental Rights Contract Law And The Protection Of The Weaker Party

Author: Olha O. Cherednychenko
Publisher: sellier. european law publ.
ISBN: 3866530439
Size: 25.36 MB
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Recoge : I. The relations between fundamental rights and private law against the background of the public/private divide. -- II. The protection of the weaker party against risky financial transactions by means of fundamental rights. Synthesis and assessment.

Philosophical Foundations Of The Law Of Torts

Author: John Oberdiek
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198701381
Size: 62.14 MB
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This book offers a rich insight into the law of torts and cognate fileds, and will be of broad interest to those working in legal and moral philosophy. It has contributions from all over the world and represents the state-of-the art in tort theory.

A Short History Of Distributive Justice

Author: Samuel Fleischacker
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674036987
Size: 63.72 MB
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Distributive justice in its modern sense calls on the state to guarantee that everyone is supplied with a certain level of material means. Samuel Fleischacker argues that guaranteeing aid to the poor is a modern idea, developed only in the last two centuries. Earlier notions of justice, including Aristotle's, were concerned with the distribution of political office, not of property. It was only in the eighteenth century, in the work of philosophers such as Adam Smith and Immanuel Kant, that justice began to be applied to the problem of poverty. To attribute a longer pedigree to distributive justice is to fail to distinguish between justice and charity. Fleischacker explains how confusing these principles has created misconceptions about the historical development of the welfare state. Socialists, for instance, often claim that modern economics obliterated ancient ideals of equality and social justice. Free-market promoters agree but applaud the apparent triumph of skepticism and social-scientific rigor. Both interpretations overlook the gradual changes in thinking that yielded our current assumption that justice calls for everyone, if possible, to be lifted out of poverty. By examining major writings in ancient, medieval, and modern political philosophy, Fleischacker shows how we arrived at the contemporary meaning of distributive justice.

Die Idee Der Gerechtigkeit

Author: Amartya Sen
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 9783406606533
Size: 40.19 MB
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Drei Kinder streiten darüber, wem von ihnen eine Flöte gehören sollte. Das erste Kind hat Musikunterricht gehabt und kann als einziges Flöte spielen. Das zweite ist arm und besitzt keinerlei anderes Spielzeug. Das dritte Kind hat die Flöte mit viel Ausdauer selbst angefertigt. Mit diesem Gleichnis eröffnet Amartya Sen, einer der wichtigsten Denker unserer Zeit, sein Buch über die Idee der Gerechtigkeit. Es ist John Rawls gewidmet und grenzt sich doch von der wirkungsmächtigsten Gerechtigkeitstheorie des 20. Jahrhunderts ab. Wer eine weitere abstrakte Diskussion der institutionellen Grundlagen einer gerechten Gesellschaft erwartet, der wird enttäuscht sein. Wer sich hingegen darüber wundert, was diese Theorien eigentlich zur Bekämpfung real existierender Ungerechtigkeiten beitragen, der wird großen Gewinn daraus ziehen. Sen nämlich stellt die Plausibilität solcher Anstrengungen der reinen Vernunft in Frage. Seine Theorie der Gerechtigkeit ist weniger an der Ausformulierung einer ethisch perfekten Gesellschaft interessiert als an Argumenten, deren Maßstab die konkrete Überwindung von Ungerechtigkeit ist. Sen eröffnet Perspektiven, die dem westlichen Denken meist fehlen. Seine Kenntnis der hinduistischen, buddhistischen und islamischen Kultur ist wundervoll eingewoben in das Buch und prägt den ganzen Charakter seines Philosophierens. Die Vernunft sucht die Wahrheit, wo immer sie sich finden lässt - und wie der Autor dieses außergewöhnlichen Werkes entdeckt sie auf ihrer weiten Reise viele gangbare Wege zu einer gerechteren Welt.

Philosophical Foundations Of Tort Law

Author: David G. Owen
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 019825847X
Size: 51.45 MB
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This exceptional collection of twenty-two essays on the philosophical fundamentals of tort law assembles many of the world's leading commentators on this particularly fascinating conjunction of law and philosophy. The contributions range broadly, from inquiries into how tort law derives from Aristotle, Aquinas, and Kant to the latest economic and rights-based theories of legal reponsibility. This is truly a multi-national production, with contributions from several distinguished Oxford scholars of law and philosophy and many prominent scholars from the United States, Canada, and Israel. A provocative closing essay by one of the world's leading moral philosophers illuminates how tort law enables philosophers to observe the abstract theories of their discipline put to the concrete test in the legal resolution of real-world controversies based on principles of right and wrong.

Forgotten Justice

Author: Allan Beever
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191662984
Size: 78.56 MB
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Throughout much of the history of political philosophy, many of the great philosophers begin their work with an investigation of private law. Why is this? And why is the central focus of our modern concern, the state, examined so late in their works? This book suggests an answer to these and related questions. It reveals that there are two general ways of thinking about the legal and the political: the modern which sees all through the lens of the state, and the traditional which begins with individuals and with the normative relations that exist between them building only slowly towards the community and the state. In the modern view, private law is understood as a method for achieving certain social goals. As such, it can be overlooked by political philosophy. For the traditional view, on the other hand, private law is of central philosophical importance, because it is there that we observe a society's enunciation of its most fundamental political and legal values. Arguing that an understanding of the traditional view is essential to an understanding of private law and political life, this book highlights how the modern conception is seriously distorting in this regard. A story unfolds throughout the chapters: the story of the growth and decline of the traditional view in political and legal thought. It challenges the modern fixation with the state, arguing for a return to the traditional view of legal and political community.

History And Political Economy

Author: Tony Aspromourgos
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134337019
Size: 48.30 MB
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Impressive and authoritative, this essential book brings together a collection of essays in honour of Peter Groenewegen, one of the most distinguished historians of economic thought of a generation. His work on a wide range of economic theorists such as Adam Smith, François Quesnay and Alfred Marshall approaches a level of near insuperability.