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Crimes Against Peace And International Law

Author: Kirsten Sellars
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107311233
Size: 63.23 MB
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In 1946, the judges at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg declared 'crimes against peace' - the planning, initiation or waging of aggressive wars - to be 'the supreme international crime'. At the time, the prosecuting powers heralded the charge as being a legal milestone, but it later proved to be an anomaly arising from the unique circumstances of the post-war period. This study traces the idea of criminalising aggression, from its origins after the First World War, through its high-water mark at the post-war tribunals at Nuremberg and Tokyo, to its abandonment during the Cold War. Today, a similar charge - the 'crime of aggression' - is being mooted at the International Criminal Court, so the ideas and debates that shaped the original charge of 'crimes against peace' assume new significance and offer valuable insights to lawyers, policy-makers and scholars engaged in international law and international relations.

N Rnberger Prozess Gegen Die Hauptkriegsverbrecher Vor Dem Internationalen Milit Rgerichtshof N Rnberg 14 November 1945 1 Oktober 1946

Author: Hermann Göring
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 11.97 MB
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Trial against H.W. Goring, R. Hess, J. von Ribbentrop, R. Ley, W. Keitel, E. Kaltenbrunner. A. Rosenberg, H. Frank, W. Frich, J. Streicher, W. Funk, H. Schacht, G. Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, K. Donitz, E. Raederder, B. von Schirach, F. Sauckel, A. Jodl, M. Bormann, F. von Papen, A. Seyss-Inquart, A. Speer, C. von Neurath, and H. Fritzsche, individually and as members of any groups or organizations to which they belonged.

Jenseits Der Menschenrechte

Author: Anne Peters
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161527494
Size: 12.89 MB
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Grundthese des Buches ist, dass ein Paradigmenwechsel stattgefunden hat, der den Menschen zum primaren Volkerrechtssubjekt macht. Diese These wird vor dem Hintergrund der Ideengeschichte und Dogmatik der Volkerrechtspersonlichkeit des Menschen entfaltet und auf die Rechtspraxis in zahlreichen Teilrechtsgebieten, angefangen vom Recht der internationalen Verantwortung uber das Recht des bewaffneten Konflikts, das Recht der Katastrophenhilfe, das internationale Strafrecht, das internationale Umweltrecht, das Konsularrecht und das Recht des diplomatischen Schutzes, das internationale Arbeitsrecht, das Fluchtlingsrecht bis hin zum internationalen Investitionsschutzrecht gestutzt. Der neue Volkerrechtsstatus des Menschen wird mit dem Begriff des subjektiven internationalen Rechts auf den Punkt gebracht.

Crimes Against Humanity

Author: Kerstin von Lingen
Publisher: Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh
ISBN: 3657787755
Size: 74.94 MB
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Transnationale Debatten unter Juristen haben das humanitäre Völkerrecht entscheidend geformt. Die Zivilisierung von Kriegsgewalt stand seit der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts im Zentrum und gipfelte im Konzept von "Crimes against Humanity", das im Internationalen Militärtribunal von Nürnberg erstmals zum Tatbestand erhoben wurde. Kerstin von Lingen zeichnet diesen Weg nach – von den frühen völkerrechtlichen Debatten unter Juristen über die Haager Friedenskonferenzen und die Verhandlungen von Versailles nach dem Ende des Ersten Weltkriegs. Angesichts immer höherer Opferzahlen und ansteigender Massengewalt gegen Zivilisten wirkte der Zweite Weltkrieg wie ein Katalysator: Das Konzept "Crimes against Humanity" wurde in London in Gremien geschärft, deren Akten für dieses Buch erstmals ausgewertet wurden. "Crimes against Humanity" wurde nach 1945 neben dem Genozid-Vorwurf zum wichtigsten juristischen Werkzeug unserer Zeit, um Massengewalt gegen Zivilisten zu ahnden.

Humanity At Sea

Author: Itamar Mann
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316785297
Size: 31.66 MB
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This interdisciplinary study engages law, history, and political theory in a first attempt to crystallize the lessons the global 'refugee crisis' can teach us about the nature of international law. It connects the dots between the actions of Jewish migrants to Palestine after WWII, Vietnamese 'boatpeople', Haitian refugees seeking to reach Florida, Middle Eastern migrants and refugees bound to Australia, and Syrian refugees currently crossing the Mediterranean, and then legal responses by states and international organizations to these movements. Through its account of maritime migration, the book proposes a theory of human rights modelled around an encounter between individuals in which one of the parties is at great risk. It weaves together primary sources, insights from the work of twentieth-century thinkers such as Hannah Arendt and Emmanuel Levinas, and other legal materials to form a rich account of an issue of increasing global concern.

Economic Social And Cultural Rights In Armed Conflict

Author: Gilles Giacca
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191026913
Size: 36.64 MB
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This book addresses the international legal obligation to protect economic, social, and cultural human rights in times of armed conflict and other situations of armed violence. These rights provide guarantees to individuals of their fundamental rights to work, to an adequate standard of living (food, water, housing), to education, and to health. Armed violence can take many forms, from civil unrest or protest and other forms of internal disturbances and tensions to higher levels of violence that may amount to armed conflict, whether of an international or of a non-international character. However, in all such cases the protection of ESC rights is sorely challenged. Situations of actual or potential violence present a number of challenges to the application and implementation of human rights law in general and socio-economic rights obligations more specifically. This book sets out the legal framework, defining what constitutes a minimum universal standard of human rights protection applicable in all circumstances. It assesses the concept and content of ESC rights' obligations, and evaluates how far they can be legally applicable in various scenarios of armed violence. By looking at the specific human rights treaty provisions, it discusses how far ESC rights obligations can be affected by practical and legal challenges to their implementation. The book addresses the key issues facing the protection of such rights in times of armed conflict: the legal conditions to limit ESC rights on security grounds, including the use of force; the extraterritorial applicability of international human rights treaties setting out ESC rights; the relationship between human rights law and international humanitarian law; and the obligations of non-state actors under human rights law and with particular relevance to the protection of ESC rights. The book assesses the nature of these potential challenges to the protection of ESC rights, and offers solutions to reinforce their continued application.

Encyclopedia Of War Crimes And Genocide

Author: Leslie Alan Horvitz
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
ISBN: 1438110294
Size: 15.14 MB
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Entries address topics related to genocide, crimes against humanity and peace, and human rights violations; profile perpetrators including Joseph Stalin, Pol Pot, and Idi Amin; and discuss institutions set up to prosecute these crimes in countries around the world.

Promoting Peace Through International Law

Author: Cecilia Marcela Bailliet
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191034304
Size: 18.44 MB
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Within international law there is no unified concept of peace. This book addresses this gap by considering the liberal conception of peace within Western philosophy alongside the principle of 'peaceful coexistence' supported in the East. By tracing the evolution of the international law of peace through its historical and philosophical origins, this book investigates whether there is a 'right to peace'. The book explores how existing international law and institutions contribute to the establishment of peace, or how they fail to do so. It sets out how international law promotes the negative dimension of peace-the absence of violence-as well as its positive dimension: the presence of underlying conditions for peace. It also investigates whether international actors and institutions have particular obligations in relation to the establishment and maintenance of peace. Discussions include: the relationships between the different regimes of human rights, trade, development, the environment, and regulation of arms trade with peace; the role of women, refugees, and other groups seeking equal treatment; the role of peacekeepers, transitional justice mechanisms, international courts fact-finding missions, and national constitutional frameworks in upholding peace in practice; and how civil society participates in the promotion and safeguarding of peace. The book's comprehensive treatment of the concept of peace in international law makes it an ideal reference work for those working in the field, as well as for students.

Prosecuting International Crimes

Author: Robert Cryer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139443692
Size: 79.46 MB
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This 2005 book discusses the legitimacy of the international criminal law regime. It explains the development of the system of international criminal law enforcement in historical context, from antiquity through the Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials, to modern-day prosecutions of atrocities in the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone. The modern regime of prosecution of international crimes is evaluated with regard to international relations theory. The book then subjects that regime to critique on the basis of legitimacy and the rule of law, in particular selective enforcement, not only in relation to who is prosecuted, but also the definitions of crimes and principles of liability used when people are prosecuted. It concludes that although selective enforcement is not as powerful as a critique of international criminal law as it was previously, the creation of the International Criminal Court may also have narrowed the substantive rules of international criminal law.