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Criminal Justice Forecasts Of Risk

Author: Richard Berk
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461430852
Size: 64.96 MB
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Machine learning and nonparametric function estimation procedures can be effectively used in forecasting. One important and current application is used to make forecasts of “future dangerousness" to inform criminal justice decision. Examples include the decision to release an individual on parole, determination of the parole conditions, bail recommendations, and sentencing. Since the 1920s, "risk assessments" of various kinds have been used in parole hearings, but the current availability of large administrative data bases, inexpensive computing power, and developments in statistics and computer science have increased their accuracy and applicability. In this book, these developments are considered with particular emphasis on the statistical and computer science tools, under the rubric of supervised learning, that can dramatically improve these kinds of forecasts in criminal justice settings. The intended audience is researchers in the social sciences and data analysts in criminal justice agencies.

Review Of Proposals For Research On Statistical Methodologies For Assessing Variables In Eyewitness Performance

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309449138
Size: 36.59 MB
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Recognizing the importance of eyewitness identifications in courts of law and motivated by data showing that at least one erroneous eyewitness identification was associated with almost 75% of cases where defendants were later exonerated by DNA evidence, in 2013 the Laura and John Arnold Foundation asked the National Academy of Sciences to undertake an assessment of the scientific research on eyewitness identification and offer recommendations to improve eyewitness performance. The appointed committee issued its report, Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification, in 2014. In order to stimulate new and innovative research on statistical tools and the interrelationships between system and estimator variables, the Arnold Foundation in 2015 again called upon the National Academies. This report describes the development of the request for proposals, the processes followed by the committee as it evaluated the proposals, and the committee’s assessment of the scientific merit and research design of the proposals.

Forensic Assessment Of Violence Risk

Author: Mary Alice Conroy
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470179734
Size: 64.79 MB
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Forensic Assessment of Violence Risk: A Guide for Risk Assessment and Risk Management provides both a summary of research to date and an integrated model for mental health professionals conducting risk assessments, one of the most high-stakes evaluations forensic mental health professionals perform.

Risk Assessment

Author: David L. Shapiro
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319170589
Size: 48.85 MB
Format: PDF
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This compact reference makes the case for a middle ground between clinical and actuarial methods in predicting future violence, domestic violence, and sexual offending. It critiques widely used measures such as the PCL-R, VRAG, SORAG, and Static-99 in terms of clarity of scoring, need for clinical interpretation, and potential weight in assessing individuals. Appropriate standards of practice are illustrated--and questioned--based on significant legal cases, among them Tarasoff v.Regents of the State of California and Lipari v. Sears, that have long defined the field. This expert coverage helps make sense of the pertinent issues and controversies surrounding risk assessment as it provides readers with invaluable information in these and other key areas: The history of violence prediction. Commonly used assessment instruments with their strengths and limitations. Psychological risk factors, both actual and questionable. Clinical lessons learned from instructive court cases, from Tarasoff forward. Implications for treatment providers. How more specialized risk assessment measures may be developed. Risk Assessment offers its readers--professionals working with sex offenders as well as those working with the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide and Sex Offender Appraisal Guide--new possibilities for rethinking the assessment strategies of their trade toward predicting and preventing violent criminal incidents.

Translational Criminology And Counterterrorism

Author: Leslie W. Kennedy
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1461455561
Size: 45.31 MB
Format: PDF
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This brief focuses on translational criminology practices as they relate to counter-terrorism and homeland security. The work provides a detailed and practical examination of how global threats (such as, terrorism and cybercrime) are managed through local response. It covers emerging strategies in data collection procedures, inter-agency cooperation, and new analytical techniques including risk-terrain modeling. In addition, it presents a common methodology, including steps in risk assessment, risk management, and decision-making, that can be used to frame and analyze global and local threats. The authors examine these issues using examples of how law enforcement responded to specific security threats including the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, the 2003 terrorist attack in Istanbul, Turkey, and the 2010 Stuxnet attack on the Natanz nuclear facility in Iran. This work expands on existing literature covering the impact that globalization has on cross national threats, drawing on disciplines related to criminology, such as international relations and political science.

Community Oriented Policing And Technological Innovations

Author: Georgios Leventakis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319892940
Size: 11.28 MB
Format: PDF
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This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Teaching Environmental Health To Children

Author: David W. Hursh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400718111
Size: 23.15 MB
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Every day we are exposed to toxins and toxicants that can impact our health. Yet we rarely teach elementary and secondary students about these exposures and how they can reduce their risk to them. In this book we highlight activities and curriculum developed at nine universities in the United States from a grant funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Our goal is to extend these lessons to a global audience and for classroom teachers of all subjects and age levels to include environmental health in their teaching. ‘An invaluable tool for equipping informed citizens to think about the environment and its human impacts --both the science, and equally important, the social and ethical dimensions’ , Howard Frumkin, M.D., Dr. P.H., Dean, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

Security For Wireless Implantable Medical Devices

Author: Xiali Hei
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461471532
Size: 26.77 MB
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In the treatment of chronic diseases, wireless Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs) are commonly used to communicate with an outside programmer (reader). Such communication raises serious security concerns, such as the ability for hackers to gain access to a patient’s medical records. This brief provides an overview of such attacks and the new security challenges, defenses, design issues, modeling and performance evaluation in wireless IMDs. While studying the vulnerabilities of IMDs and corresponding security defenses, the reader will also learn the methodologies and tools for designing security schemes, modeling, security analysis, and performance evaluation, thus keeping pace with quickly-evolving wireless security research.

Visualizing The Data City

Author: Paolo Ciuccarelli
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319021958
Size: 40.60 MB
Format: PDF
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This book investigates novel methods and technologies for the collection, analysis and representation of real-time user-generated data at the urban scale in order to explore potential scenarios for more participatory design, planning and management processes. For this purpose, the authors present a set of experiments conducted in collaboration with urban stakeholders at various levels (including citizens, city administrators, urban planners, local industries and NGOs) in Milan and New York in 2012. It is examined whether geo-tagged and user-generated content can be of value in the creation of meaningful, real-time indicators of urban quality, as it is perceived and communicated by the citizens. The meanings that people attach to places are also explored to discover what such an urban semantic layer looks like and how it unfolds over time. As a conclusion, recommendations are proposed for the exploitation of user-generated content in order to answer hitherto unsolved urban questions. Readers will find in this book a fascinating exploration of techniques for mining the social web that can be applied to procure user-generated content as a means of investigating urban dynamics.

The Illusion Of Risk Control

Author: Gilles Motet
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319329391
Size: 70.46 MB
Format: PDF
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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book explores the implications of acknowledging uncertainty and black swans for regulation of high-hazard technologies, for stakeholder acceptability of potentially hazardous activities and for risk governance. The conventional approach to risk assessment, which combines the likelihood of an event and the severity of its consequences, is poorly suited to situations where uncertainty and ambiguity are prominent features of the risk landscape. The new definition of risk used by ISO, “the effect of uncertainty on [achievement of] one’s objectives”, recognizes this paradigm change. What lessons can we draw from the management of fire hazards in Edo-era Japan? Are there situations in which increasing uncertainty allows more effective safety management? How should society address the risk of potentially planet-destroying scientific experiments? This book presents insights from leading scholars in different disciplines to challenge current risk governance and safety management practice.