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Crystallization And Growth Of Colloidal Nanocrystals

Author: Edson Roberto Leite
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461413080
Size: 62.63 MB
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Since the size, shape, and microstructure of nanocrystalline materials strongly impact physical and chemical properties, the development of new synthetic routes to nanocrystals with controlled composition and morphology is a key objective of the nanomaterials community. This objective is dependent on control of the nucleation and growth mechanisms that occur during the synthetic process, which in turn requires a fundamental understanding of both classical nucleation and growth and non-classical growth processes in nanostructured materials. Recently, a novel growth process called Oriented Attachment (OA) was identified which appears to be a fundamental mechanism during the development of nanoscale materials. OA is a special case of aggregation that provides an important route by which nanocrystals grow, defects are formed, and unique—often symmetry-defying—crystal morphologies can be produced. This growth mechanism involves reversible self-assembly of primary nanocrystals followed by reorientation of the assembled nanoparticles to achieve structural accord at the particle-particle interface, the removal of adsorbates and solvent molecules, and, finally, the irreversible formation of chemical bonds to produce new single crystals, twins, and intergrowths. Crystallization and Growth of Colloidal Nanocrystals provides a current understanding of the mechanisms related to nucleation and growth for use in controlling nanocrystal morphology and physical-chemical properties, and is essential reading for any chemist or materials scientist with an interest in using nanocrystals as building blocks for larger structures. This book provides a compendium for the expert reader as well as an excellent introduction for advanced undergraduate and graduate students seeking a gateway into this dynamic area of research.

Cryosurgery

Author: Paola Pasquali
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662439395
Size: 42.68 MB
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This book aims to fill the gap created by the lack of formal training in cryosurgery, which leads not only to an underutilization of the technique but also to inappropriate uses with unpleasant consequences for patients. The book covers all practical aspects of cryosurgery and also offers a theoretical foundation for practice. Basic principles, equipment, and techniques are described, and procedures are explained step by step for a range of applications, including common benign lesions, vascular lesions, premalignant conditions, and malignancies. An important feature is the coverage of the latest advances in combination treatments such as topical drugs and cryosurgery, ultrasound and cryosurgery, photography and cryosurgery, cryobiopsy, and immuno cryosurgery. Use of cryosurgery as palliative treatment is also discussed, and the closing chapters consider postoperative care, complications, and future directions.

One Dimensional Nanostructures

Author: Zhenyu Li
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642364276
Size: 49.91 MB
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One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Electrospinning Technique and Unique Nanofibers is a comprehensive book depicting the electrospinning technique and related 1D unique electrospun nanofibers. The first part of the book focuses on electrospinning technique, with chapters describing Electrospinning setup, electrospinning theories, and related working parameter. The second part of the book describes in detail specific topics on how to control the electrospun fiber properties such as how to control the fiber direction, how to control the fiber surface morphology, how to control the fiber structure, and how to construct 3D structures by electrospun fibers. The final part of the book depicts the applications of the electrospun nanofibers, with sections describing in detail specific fields such as electrospun nanofiber reinforcement, filtration, electronic devices, lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells, biomedical field, and so on. One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Electrospinning Technique and Unique Nanofibers is designed to bring state-of-the-art on electrospinning together into a single book and will be valuable resource for scientists in the electrospinning field and other scientists involved in biomedical field, mechanical field, materials, and energy field. Dr. Zhenyu Li is an associate professor at the Dept. of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China. Currently, he also holds the position in Australian Future Fibres Research & Innovation Centre, Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Dr. Ce Wang is a professor at the Dept. of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China.

Applications Of Graphene

Author: Edward L. Wolf
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319039466
Size: 50.45 MB
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Graphene is presented and analyzed as a replacement for silicon. The Primary focus is on solar cell and CMOS device technologies, with attention to the fabrication methods, including extensions needed, in each case. Specialized applications for graphene within the existing silicon technology are discussed and found to be promising.

Lipid Nanoparticles Production Characterization And Stability

Author: Rohan Shah
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319107119
Size: 27.45 MB
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​What are lipid nanoparticles? How are they structured? How are they formed? What techniques are best to characterize them? How great is their potential as drug delivery systems? These questions and more are answered in this comprehensive and highly readable work on lipid nanoparticles. This work sets out to provide the reader with a clear and understandable understanding of the current practices in formulation, characterization and drug delivery of lipid nanoparticles. A comprehensive description of the current understanding of synthesis, characterization, stability optimization and drug incorporation of solid lipid nanoparticles is provided. Nanoparticles have attracted great interest over the past few decades with almost exponential growth in their research and application. Their small particle size and subsequent high surface area make them ideal in many uses, but particularly as drug carrier systems. Nanoparticles made from lipids are especially attractive because of their enhanced biocompatibility imparted by the lipid. The work provides a detailed description of the types of lipid nanoparticles available (e.g. SLN, NLC, LDC, PLN) and how they range from imperfect crystalline to amorphous in structure. Current thoughts on where drugs are situated (e.g. in the core, or at the interface) and how this can be manipulated are discussed. The many techniques for production, including the author’s own variant of microwave heating, are fully discussed. Techniques for measuring arguably the most important characteristics of particle size and polydispersity are discussed, along with techniques to measure crystallinity, shape and drug capacity. Finally, a full chapter on techniques for measuring stability, both in the absence and presence of drugs, is discussed, along with suggestions on how to optimize that stability. This work appeals to students of colloid science, practitioners of research into drug delivery and academics alike.

Cancer Nanotheranostics

Author: P. Gopinath
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9812874356
Size: 17.41 MB
Format: PDF
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This Brief provides a clear insight of the recent advances in the field of cancer theranostics with special emphasis upon nano scale carrier molecules (polymeric, protein and lipid based) and imaging agents (organic and inorganic).

Classical Nucleation Theory In Multicomponent Systems

Author: Hanna Vehkamäki
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540292136
Size: 10.21 MB
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Nucleation is the initial step of every first-order phase transition, and most phase transitions encountered both in everyday life and industrial processes are of the first-order. Using an elegant classical theory based on thermodynamics and kinetics, this book provides a fully detailed picture of multi-component nucleation. As many of the issues concerning multi-component nucleation theory have been solved during the last 10-15 years, it also thoroughly integrates both fundamental theory with recent advances presented in the literature. Classical Nucleation Theory in Multicomponent Systems serves as a textbook for advanced thermodynamics courses, as well as an important reference for researchers in the field. The main topics covered are: the basic relevant thermodynamics and statistical physics; modelling a molecular cluster as a spherical liquid droplet; predicting the size and composition of the nucleating critical clusters; kinetic models for cluster growth and decay; calculating nucleation rates; and a full derivation and application of nucleation theorems that can be used to extract microscopic cluster properties from nucleation rate measurements. The assumptions and approximations needed to build the classical theory are described in detail, and the reasons why the theory fails in certain cases are explained. Relevant problems are presented at the end of each chapter.

Arrow Pushing In Inorganic Chemistry

Author: Abhik Ghosh
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118924533
Size: 32.52 MB
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Involved as it is with 95% of the periodic table, inorganic chemistry is one of the foundational subjects of scientific study. Inorganic catalysts are used in crucial industrial processes and the field, to a significant extent, also forms the basis of nanotechnology. Unfortunately, the subject is not a popular one for undergraduates. This book aims to take a step to change this state of affairs by presenting a mechanistic, logical introduction to the subject. Organic teaching places heavy emphasis on reaction mechanisms - "arrow-pushing" - and the authors of this book have found that a mechanistic approach works just as well for elementary inorganic chemistry. As opposed to listening to formal lectures or learning the material by heart, by teaching students to recognize common inorganic species as electrophiles and nucleophiles, coupled with organic-style arrow-pushing, this book serves as a gentle and stimulating introduction to inorganic chemistry, providing students with the knowledge and opportunity to solve inorganic reaction mechanisms. • The first book to apply the arrow-pushing method to inorganic chemistry teaching • With the reaction mechanisms approach ("arrow-pushing"), students will no longer have to rely on memorization as a device for learning this subject, but will instead have a logical foundation for this area of study • Teaches students to recognize common inorganic species as electrophiles and nucleophiles, coupled with organic-style arrow-pushing • Provides a degree of integration with what students learn in organic chemistry, facilitating learning of this subject • Serves as an invaluable companion to any introductory inorganic chemistry textbook

Techniques For Nanoencapsulation Of Food Ingredients

Author: C. Anandharamakrishnan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461493870
Size: 37.44 MB
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Nanoencapsulation has the potential to improve human health through its capacity to both protect bioactive compounds and release them at a specific time and location into various substances, including food. Numerous nanoencapsulation technologies have emerged in recent years, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The goal of this Brief is to discuss the various nanoencapsulation technologies, such as emulsification, coacervation, inclusion encapsulation, anti-solvent precipitation, nanoprecipitation, freeze drying, and spray drying, including their limitations. Recent safety and regulatory issues concerning the various nanoencapsulation technologies will also be covered.

Dyes And Pigments

Author: Ahmet Gürses
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319338927
Size: 24.86 MB
Format: PDF
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In this book the authors go back to basics to describe the structural differences between dyes and pigments, their mechanisms of action, properties and applications. They set the scene by explaining the reasons behind these differences and show how dyes are predominately organic compounds that dissolve or react with substrates, whereas pigments are (predominantly) finely ground inorganic substances that are insoluble and therefore have a different mode of coloring. They also describe the role of functional groups and their effect on dyeing ability, contrasting this with the way in which pigments cause surface reflection (or light absorption) depending on their chemical and crystalline structure and relative particle size. The book explores the environmental impact of dyes in a section that covers the physical, chemical, toxicological, and ecological properties of dyes and how these are used to assess their effect on the environment and to estimate whether a given product presents a potential hazard. Lastly, it assesses how, in addition to their traditional uses in the textile, leather, paper, paint and varnish industries, dyes and pigments are indispensable in other fields such as microelectronics, medical diagnostics, and in information recording techniques.