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Cultural Validity In Assessment

Author: María del Rosario Basterra
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136965963
Size: 72.61 MB
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What is assessment and how is it a cultural practice? How does failure to account for linguistic and cultural variation among students jeopardize assessment validity? What is required to achieve cultural validity in assessment? This resource for practicing and prospective teachers – as well as others concerned with fair and valid assessment – provides a thorough grounding in relevant theory, research, and practice. The book lays out criteria for culturally valid assessment and recommends specific strategies that teachers can use to design and implement culturally valid classroom assessments. Assessment plays a powerful role in the process of education in the US and has a disproportionately negative impact on students who do not come from mainstream, middle-class backgrounds. Given the significance of testing in education today, cultural validity in assessment is an urgent issue facing educators. This book is essential reading for addressing this important, relevant topic.

The Assessment Of Emergent Bilinguals

Author: Dr. Kate Mahoney
Publisher: Multilingual Matters
ISBN: 1783097280
Size: 48.89 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This textbook is a comprehensive introduction to the assessment of students in K-12 schools who use two or more languages in their daily life: English Language Learners (ELLs), or Emergent Bilinguals. The book includes a thorough examination of the policy, history and assessment/measurement issues that educators should understand in order to best advocate for their students. The author presents a decision-making framework called PUMI (Purpose, Use, Method, Instrument) that practitioners can use to better inform assessment decisions for bilingual children. The book will be an invaluable resource in teacher preparation programs, but will also help policy-makers and educators make better decisions to support their students.

Language Culture And Teaching

Author: Sonia Nieto
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315465671
Size: 45.44 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Distinguished multiculturalist Sonia Nieto speaks directly to current and future teachers in this thoughtful integration of a selection of her key writings with creative pedagogical features. Offering information, insights, and motivation to teach students of diverse cultural, racial, and linguistic backgrounds, examples are included throughout to illustrate real-life dilemmas about diversity that teachers face in their own classrooms; ideas about how language, culture, and teaching are linked; and ways to engage with these ideas through reflection and collaborative inquiry. Designed for upper-undergraduate and graduate-level students and professional development courses, each chapter includes critical questions, classroom activities, and community activities suggesting projects beyond the classroom context. Language, Culture, and Teaching • explores how language and culture are connected to teaching and learning in educational settings; • examines the sociocultural and sociopolitical contexts of language and culture to understand how these contexts may affect student learning and achievement; • analyzes the implications of linguistic and cultural diversity for classroom practices, school reform, and educational equity; • encourages practicing and preservice teachers to reflect critically on their classroom practices, as well as on larger institutional policies related to linguistic and cultural diversity based on the above understandings; and • motivates teachers to understand their ethical and political responsibilities to work, together with their students, colleagues, and families, for more socially just classrooms, schools, and society. Changes in the Third Edition: This edition includes new and updated chapters, section introductions, critical questions, classroom and community activities, and resources, bringing it up-to-date in terms of recent educational policy issues and demographic changes in the U.S. and beyond. The new chapters reflect Nieto’s current thinking about the profession and society, especially about changes in the teaching profession, both positive and negative, since the publication of the second edition of this text.

Assessing English Language Learners

Author: Guillermo Solano Flores
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113407350X
Size: 15.47 MB
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Assessing English Language Learners explains and illustrates the main ideas underlying assessment as an activity intimately linked to instruction and the basic principles for developing, using, selecting, and adapting assessment instruments and strategies to assess content knowledge in English language learners (ELLs). Sensitive to the professional development needs of both in-service and pre-service mainstream teachers with ELLs in their classrooms and those receiving formal training to teach culturally and linguistically diverse students, the text is designed to engage readers in viewing assessment as a critical part of teaching appreciating that assessments provide teachers with valuable information about their students’ learning and thinking becoming aware of the relationship among language, culture, and testing understanding the reasoning that guides test construction recognizing the limitations of testing practices being confident that assessment is an activity classroom teachers (not only accountability specialists) can perform Highlighting alternative, multidisciplinary approaches that address linguistic and cultural diversity in testing, this text, enhanced by multiple field-tested exercises and examples of different forms of assessment, is ideal for any course covering the theory and practice of ELL assessment.

English Learners Left Behind

Author: Kate Menken
Publisher: Multilingual Matters
ISBN: 1853599972
Size: 72.75 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book explores how high-stakes tests mandated by No Child Left Behind have become de facto language policy in U.S. schools, detailing how testing has shaped curriculum and instruction, and the myriad ways that tests are now a defining force in the daily lives of English Language Learners and the educators who serve them.

Why Do English Learners Struggle With Reading

Author: John J. Hoover
Publisher: Corwin Press
ISBN: 1506341357
Size: 29.91 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Make the right instructional and eligibility decisions to help your English Learners! Do your students' reading difficulties reflect language acquisition issues or a learning disability? Now in an updated second edition, this essential guide helps educators make informed choices about strategies and services to support English Learners, and includes: Nine common misconceptions that can lead to wrongful placement of students in Special Education A new chapter on evidence-based practices for success in teaching reading to students learning English Appropriate techniques to use when assessing students for special education Expanded coverage of Response to Intervention to include a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS)

Multicultural Education For Learners With Special Needs In The Twentyfirst Century

Author: Festus E. Obiakor
Publisher: IAP
ISBN: 1623965829
Size: 16.15 MB
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Multicultural Education for Learners with Special Needs in the TwentyFirst Century provides general and special educators innovative information that address the road blocks to effective practice such that diverse learners will be appropriately; identified, assessed, categorized, placed and instructed. The book provides those who instruct diverse learners comprehensive, creative and best practice chapters by scholars in the area of multicultural education. Chapter One presents a system to reduce traditional education road blocks that confront diverse learners called Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Teaching (CLRT). The CLTR system is designed to accomplish three objectives, namely, to increase student achievement, to help students develop skills to achieve economic sufficiency and to allow students to acquire citizenship skills based on a realistic and thorough understanding of the political system. Chapter Two discusses the pervasive problem of disproportionate representation of students from diverse backgrounds in special education by examining what it is, who is impacted by it, why it is occurring, and how it can be addressed using promising strategies. Chapter Three examines the use of authentic assessment to provide feedback for teachers and students, and guide the instructional process by differentiating teaching to meet the educational needs of diverse learners. Chapters Four, Five, Six and Seven address issues related to educating Latina/o Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans and Native Americans learners with special needs. Chapter Eight is a unique chapter that addresses the growing need to educate foreignborn immigrants who are now being referred to as “Today’s Special Learners in Schools”. This chapter delineates the use of the Comprehensive Support Model (CSM) to educate foreignborn learners who are identified by the authors as foreignborn English Language Learners. The CSM is recommended as a culturally sensitive intervention that integrates efforts of the self, (i.e., learner), families, school, community, and government in responding to the needs of diverse learners. Chapter Nine provides a comprehensive discussion of how Culturally Relevant Leadership (CRL) can impact educational theory and practice. The authors delineate how CRL leads to reflective practices which position teachers and administrators to become leaders in school change that can increase student success for diverse learners. Chapter Ten provides the reader with illustrative content regarding the use of technology to educate multicultural learners with special needs. Chapter Eleven delineates the culturally responsive infusion of effective behavior modification strategies that are designed to strengthen and facilitate positive behaviors for culturally and linguistically diverse learners with special needs. The book is an important addition to the education of multicultural learners with special needs as it provides much needed direction for the effective instructional practices for today’s diverse students. The book can be used as current best practices for special and general educators as well as school administrators.

Exploring Language Assessment And Testing

Author: Anthony Green
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134516622
Size: 24.33 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Routledge Introductions to Applied Linguistics is a series of introductory level textbooks covering the core topics in Applied Linguistics, primarily designed for those beginning postgraduate studies, or taking an introductory MA course as well as advanced undergraduates. Titles in the series are also ideal for language professionals returning to academic study. The books take an innovative 'practice to theory' approach, with a 'back-to-front' structure. This leads the reader from real-world problems and issues, through a discussion of intervention and how to engage with these concerns, before finally relating these practical issues to theoretical foundations. Additional features include tasks with commentaries, a glossary of key terms, and an annotated further reading section. Exploring Language Assessment and Testing is a straightforward introduction to the field that provides an inclusive and impartial survey of both classroom based assessment by teachers and larger scale testing, using concrete examples to guide students to the relevant literature. Ranging from theory to classroom based scenarios, the author provides practical guidance on designing, developing and using assessments, with flexible, step by step processes for improving the quality of tests and assessment systems to make them fairer and more accurate. This book is an indispensable introduction to the areas of language assessment and testing, and will be of interest to language teachers as well as postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students studying Language Education, Applied Linguistics and Language Assessment.

Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Classrooms

Author: Dr. Jennifer Miller
Publisher: Multilingual Matters
ISBN: 9781847693792
Size: 47.58 MB
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A critical reality of contemporary education in a globalised world is the growing cultural, racial and linguistic diversity in schools and the issues involved in educating increasing numbers of students who are still learning the dominant language. This poses extraordinary challenges for second and foreign language teachers in many countries, where such students must engage with the mainstream curriculum in a new language. What do these increasingly plurilingual and multicultural classrooms look like? And how do language teachers address the challenges of such diverse classrooms? This book brings together a group of well-recognised language education scholars who present their research in a range of international settings. They focus on the key areas of pedagogy, language policy and curriculum and exemplify new research directions in the field.

Continuing The Journey To Reposition Culture And Cultural Context In Evaluation Theory And Practice

Author: Stafford Hood
Publisher: IAP
ISBN: 1623969379
Size: 58.41 MB
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Racial, ethnic, linguistic, and cultural diversity has become of global importance in places where many never would have imagined. Increasing diversity in the U.S., Europe, Africa, New Zealand, and Asia strongly suggests that a homogeneitybased focus is rapidly becoming an historical artifact. Therefore, culturally responsive evaluation (CRE) should no longer be viewed as a luxury or an option in our work as evaluators. The continued amplification of racial, ethnic, linguistic, and cultural diversity and awareness among the populations of the U.S. and other western nations insists that social science researchers and evaluators inextricably engage culturally responsive approaches in their work. It is unacceptable for most mainstream university evaluation programs, philanthropic agencies, training institutes sponsored by federal agencies, professional associations, and other entities to promote professional evaluation practices that do not attend to CRE. Our global demographics are a reality that can be appropriately described and studied within the context of complexity theory and theory of change (e.g., Stewart, 1991; Battram, 1999). And this perspective requires a distinct shift from “simple” linear causeeffect models and reductionist thinking to include more holistic and culturally responsive approaches. The development of policy that is meaningfully responsive to the needs of traditionally disenfranchised stakeholders and that also optimizes the use of limited resources (human, natural, and financial) is an extremely complex process. Fortunately, we are presently witnessing developments in methods, instruments, and statistical techniques that are mixed methods in their paradigm/designs and likely to be more effective in informing policymaking and decisionmaking. Culturally responsive evaluation is one such phenomenon that positions itself to be relevant in the context of dynamic international and national settings where policy and program decisions take place. One example of a response to address this dynamic and need is the newly established Center for Culturally Responsive Evaluation and Assessment (CREA) in the College of Education at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. CREA is an outgrowth of the collective work and commitments of a global community of scholars and practitioners who have contributed chapters to this edited volume. It is an international and interdisciplinary evaluation center that is grounded in the need for designing and conducting evaluations and assessments that embody cognitive, cultural, and interdisciplinary diversity so as to be actively responsive to culturally diverse communities and their aspirations. The Center’s purpose is to address questions, issues, theories, and practices related to CRE and culturally responsive educational assessment. Therefore, CREA can serve as a vehicle for our continuing discourse on culture and cultural context in evaluation and also as a point of dissemination for not only the work that is included in this edited volume, but for the subsequent work it will encourage.