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Cybernetics

Author: Norbert Wiener
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781614275022
Size: 58.63 MB
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2013 Reprint of 1961 Second Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. Acclaimed one of the "seminal books... comparable in ultimate importance to... Galileo or Malthus or Rousseau or Mill," "Cybernetics" was judged by twenty-seven historians, economists, educators, and philosophers to be one of those books published during the "past four decades," which may have a substantial impact on public thought and action in the years ahead." -- Saturday Review. Cybernetics was defined in the mid 20th century by Norbert Wiener as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine." Fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory, system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics), perceptual control theory, sociology, psychology (especially neuropsychology, behavioral psychology, cognitive psychology), philosophy, architecture, and organizational theory. Contents: Part one: original edition - Newtonian and Bergsonian time - Groups and statistical mechanics - Time series, information, and communication - Feedback and oscillation - Computing machines and nervous system - Gestalt and universals - Cybernetics and psychopathology - Information, language, and society - Part two: supplement chapters - On learning and self - reproducing machines - Brain waves and self - organizing systems.

God And Golem Inc

Author: Norbert Wiener
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262730112
Size: 64.12 MB
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The new and rapidly growing field of communication sciences owes as much to Norbert Wiener as to any one man. He coined the word for it-- "cybernetics." In "God &; Golem, Inc.," the author concerned himself with major points in cybernetics which are relevant to religious issues. The first point he considers is that of the machine which learns. While learning is a property almost exclusively ascribed to the self-conscious living system, a computer now exists which not only can be programmed to play a game of checkers, but one which can "learn" from its past experience and improve on its own game. For a time, the machine was able to beat its inventor at checkers. "It did win, " writes the author, "and it did learn to win; "and the method of its learning was no different in principle from that of the human being who learns to play checkers." A second point concerns machines which have the capacity to reproduce themselves. It is our commonly held belief that God made man in his own image. The propagation of the race may also be interpreted as a function in which one living being makes another in its own image. But the author demonstrates that man has made machines which are "very well able to make other machines in their own image, " and these machine images are not merely "pictorial" representations but "operative" images. Can we then say: God is to Golem as man is to Machines? in Jewish legend, "golem" is an embryo Adam, shapeless and not fully created, hence a monster, an automation. The third point considered is that of the relation between man and machine. The concern here is ethical. "render unto man the things which are man's andunto the computer the things which are the computer's, " warns the author. In this section of the book, Dr. Wiener considers systems involving elements of man "and" machine. The book is written for the intellectually alert public and does not involve any highly technical knowledge. It is based on lectures given at Yale, at the Socié té Philosophique de Royaumont, and elsewhere.

The Human Use Of Human Beings

Author: Norbert Wiener
Publisher: Da Capo Press
ISBN: 0786752262
Size: 16.71 MB
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Only a few books stand as landmarks in social and scientific upheaval. Norbert Wiener's classic is one in that small company. Founder of the science of cybernetics—the study of the relationship between computers and the human nervous system—Wiener was widely misunderstood as one who advocated the automation of human life. As this book reveals, his vision was much more complex and interesting. He hoped that machines would release people from relentless and repetitive drudgery in order to achieve more creative pursuits. At the same time he realized the danger of dehumanizing and displacement. His book examines the implications of cybernetics for education, law, language, science, technology, as he anticipates the enormous impact—in effect, a third industrial revolution—that the computer has had on our lives.

Cybernetics Or Control And Communication In The Animal And The Machine

Author: Norbert Wiener
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262730099
Size: 59.11 MB
Format: PDF
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"It appers impossible for anyone seriously interested in our civilization to ignore this book. It is a ‘ must’ book for those in every branch of science . . . in addition, economists, politicians, statesmen, and businessmen cannot afford to overlook cybernetics and its tremendous, even terrifying implications. "It is a beautifully written book, lucid, direct, and despite its complexity, as readable by the layman as the trained scientist." -- John B. Thurston, "The Saturday Review of Literature" Acclaimed one of the "seminal books . . . comparable in ultimate importance to . . . Galileo or Malthus or Rousseau or Mill," "Cybernetics" was judged by twenty-seven historians, economists, educators, and philosophers to be one of those books published during the "past four decades, " which may have a substantial impact on public thought and action in the years ahead." -- "Saturday Review"

Rise Of The Machines A Cybernetic History

Author: Thomas Rid
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393286010
Size: 19.11 MB
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"Dazzling.” —Financial Times As lives offline and online merge even more, it is easy to forget how we got here. Rise of the Machines reclaims the spectacular story of cybernetics, one of the twentieth century’s pivotal ideas. Springing from the mind of mathematician Norbert Wiener amid the devastation of World War II, the cybernetic vision underpinned a host of seductive myths about the future of machines. Cybernetics triggered blissful cults and military gizmos, the Whole Earth Catalog and the air force’s foray into virtual space, as well as crypto-anarchists fighting for internet freedom. In Rise of the Machines, Thomas Rid draws on unpublished sources—including interviews with hippies, anarchists, sleuths, and spies—to offer an unparalleled perspective into our anxious embrace of technology.

Dark Hero Of The Information Age

Author: Flo Conway
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0786735619
Size: 41.12 MB
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Child prodigy and brilliant MIT mathematician, Norbert Wiener founded the revolutionary science of cybernetics and ignited the information-age explosion of computers, automation, and global telecommunications. His best-selling book, Cybernetics, catapulted him into the public spotlight, as did his chilling visions of the future and his ardent social activism.Based on a wealth of primary sources and exclusive access to Wiener's closest family members, friends, and colleagues, Dark Hero of the Information Age reveals this eccentric genius as an extraordinarily complex figure. No one interested in the intersection of technology and culture will want to miss this epic story of one of the twentieth century's most brilliant and colorful figures.

The Cybernetics Moment

Author: Ronald R. Kline
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421416719
Size: 10.46 MB
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Cybernetics—the science of communication and control as it applies to machines and to humans—originates from efforts during World War II to build automatic anti-aircraft systems. Following the war, this science extended beyond military needs to examine all systems that rely on information and feedback, from the level of the cell to that of society. In The Cybernetics Moment, Ronald R. Kline, a senior historian of technology, examines the intellectual and cultural history of cybernetics and information theory, whose language of "information," "feedback," and "control" transformed the idiom of the sciences, hastened the development of information technologies, and laid the conceptual foundation for what we now call the Information Age. Kline argues that, for about twenty years after 1950, the growth of cybernetics and information theory and ever-more-powerful computers produced a utopian information narrative—an enthusiasm for information science that influenced natural scientists, social scientists, engineers, humanists, policymakers, public intellectuals, and journalists, all of whom struggled to come to grips with new relationships between humans and intelligent machines. Kline traces the relationship between the invention of computers and communication systems and the rise, decline, and transformation of cybernetics by analyzing the lives and work of such notables as Norbert Wiener, Claude Shannon, Warren McCulloch, Margaret Mead, Gregory Bateson, and Herbert Simon. Ultimately, he reveals the crucial role played by the cybernetics moment—when cybernetics and information theory were seen as universal sciences—in setting the stage for our current preoccupation with information technologies.

An Introduction To Information Theory

Author: John R. Pierce
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486134970
Size: 13.78 MB
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Covers encoding and binary digits, entropy, language and meaning, efficient encoding and the noisy channel, and explores ways in which information theory relates to physics, cybernetics, psychology, and art. 1980 edition.

Cybernetic Revolutionaries

Author: Eden Medina
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262525968
Size: 22.19 MB
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A historical study of Chile's twin experiments with cybernetics and socialism, and what they tell us about the relationship of technology and politics.

The Cybernetic Brain

Author: Andrew Pickering
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226667928
Size: 76.40 MB
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Cybernetics is often thought of as a grim military or industrial science of control. But as Andrew Pickering reveals in this beguiling book, a much more lively and experimental strain of cybernetics can be traced from the 1940s to the present. The Cybernetic Brain explores a largely forgotten group of British thinkers, including Grey Walter, Ross Ashby, Gregory Bateson, R. D. Laing, Stafford Beer, and Gordon Pask, and their singular work in a dazzling array of fields. Psychiatry, engineering, management, politics, music, architecture, education, tantric yoga, the Beats, and the sixties counterculture all come into play as Pickering follows the history of cybernetics’ impact on the world, from contemporary robotics and complexity theory to the Chilean economy under Salvador Allende. What underpins this fascinating history, Pickering contends, is a shared but unconventional vision of the world as ultimately unknowable, a place where genuine novelty is always emerging. And thus, Pickering avers, the history of cybernetics provides us with an imaginative model of open-ended experimentation in stark opposition to the modern urge to achieve domination over nature and each other.