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Dark Ages

Author: Lee C. McIntyre
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262263874
Size: 29.59 MB
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During the Dark Ages, the progress of Western civilization virtually stopped. The knowledge gained by the scholars of the classical age was lost; for nearly 600 years, life was governed by superstitions and fears fueled by ignorance. In this outspoken and forthright book, Lee McIntyre argues that today we are in a new Dark Age -- that we are as ignorant of the causes of human behavior as people centuries ago were of the causes of such natural phenomena as disease, famine, and eclipses. We are no further along in our understanding of what causes war, crime, and poverty -- and how to end them -- than our ancestors. We need, McIntyre says, another scientific revolution; we need the courage to apply a more rigorous methodology to human behavior, to go where the empirical evidence leads us -- even if it threatens our cherished religious or political beliefs about human autonomy, race, class, and gender. Resistance to knowledge has always arisen against scientific advance. Today's academics -- economists, psychologists, philosophers, and others in the social sciences -- stand in the way of a science of human behavior just as clerics attempted to block the Copernican revolution in the 1600s. A scientific approach to social science would test hypotheses against the evidence rather than find and use evidence only to affirm a particular theory, as is often the practice in today's social sciences. Drawing lessons from Galileo's conflict with the Catholic church and current debates over the teaching of "creation science," McIntyre argues that what we need most to establish a science of human behavior is the scientific attitude -- the willingness to hear what the evidence tells us even if it clashes with religious or political pieties -- and the resolve to apply our findings to the creation of a better society.

Post Truth

Author: Lee McIntyre
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262345986
Size: 77.59 MB
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Are we living in a post-truth world, where "alternative facts" replace actual facts and feelings have more weight than evidence? How did we get here? In this volume in the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series, Lee McIntyre traces the development of the post-truth phenomenon from science denial through the rise of "fake news," from our psychological blind spots to the public's retreat into "information silos." What, exactly, is post-truth? Is it wishful thinking, political spin, mass delusion, bold-faced lying? McIntyre analyzes recent examples -- claims about inauguration crowd size, crime statistics, and the popular vote -- and finds that post-truth is an assertion of ideological supremacy by which its practitioners try to compel someone to believe something regardless of the evidence. Yet post-truth didn't begin with the 2016 election; the denial of scientific facts about smoking, evolution, vaccines, and climate change offers a road map for more widespread fact denial. Add to this the wired-in cognitive biases that make us feel that our conclusions are based on good reasoning even when they are not, the decline of traditional media and the rise of social media, and the emergence of fake news as a political tool, and we have the ideal conditions for post-truth. McIntyre also argues provocatively that the right wing borrowed from postmodernism -- specifically, the idea that there is no such thing as objective truth -- in its attacks on science and facts. McIntyre argues that we can fight post-truth, and that the first step in fighting post-truth is to understand it.

Respecting Truth

Author: Lee McIntyre
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317497171
Size: 16.91 MB
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Throughout history, humans have always indulged in certain irrationalities and held some fairly wrong-headed beliefs. But in his newest book, philosopher Lee McIntyre shows how we've now reached a watershed moment for ignorance in the modern era, due to the volume of misinformation, the speed with which it can be digitally disseminated, and the savvy exploitation of our cognitive weaknesses by those who wish to advance their ideological agendas. In Respecting Truth: Willful Ignorance in the Internet Age, McIntyre issues a call to fight back against this slide into the witless abyss. In the tradition of Galileo, the author champions the importance of using tested scientific methods for arriving at true beliefs, and shows how our future survival is dependent on a more widespread, reasonable world.

Respecting Truth

Author: Lee McIntyre
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131749718X
Size: 38.96 MB
Format: PDF
View: 1384
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Throughout history, humans have always indulged in certain irrationalities and held some fairly wrong-headed beliefs. But in his newest book, philosopher Lee McIntyre shows how we've now reached a watershed moment for ignorance in the modern era, due to the volume of misinformation, the speed with which it can be digitally disseminated, and the savvy exploitation of our cognitive weaknesses by those who wish to advance their ideological agendas. In Respecting Truth: Willful Ignorance in the Internet Age, McIntyre issues a call to fight back against this slide into the witless abyss. In the tradition of Galileo, the author champions the importance of using tested scientific methods for arriving at true beliefs, and shows how our future survival is dependent on a more widespread, reasonable world.

What Causes Human Behavior

Author: Stephen F. Ledoux
Publisher: Dogwise Publishing
ISBN: 1617812129
Size: 59.81 MB
Format: PDF
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What experts are saying about What Causes Human Behavior: Stephen Ledoux's book, is a strong non-compromising, theoretical and philosophical argument that the answers come from behaviorology, the natural science of behavior, that the answers do not come from astrology, theology, etc., or from psychology, the mentalistic unnatural science of the mind. And he supports his argument with examples of effective, science-based applications of applied behaviorology (applied behavior analysis) and with analyses of human behavior in everyday life, going from simple behaviors, to complex verbal behavior, with suggestions that behaviorology is crucial to the solutions of the world problems of overpopulation, sustainability, and global warming. But also, he's not afraid to make these complex topics more readable by using an occasional contraction, an informed expression, and even a little humor, i.e. he's way cool. Richard Malott, Ph.D. (Professor, Western Michigan University) Professor Ledoux has written a primer on a newly emerging discipline: behaviorology. It is the natural science of environment-behavior relations and an intellectually challenging subject, one that variously intersects with astrology, psychology, philosophy, education, and physiology plus other biological and behavioral sciences. Ledoux's discussion of explanatory fictions and a variety of other explanatory fallacies alone, however, is worth the price of admission. And there is so much more! John Stone Ph.D. (Professor, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, and President, Education Consumers Foundation at www.education-consumers.org)

Philosophy Of Chemistry

Author: Eric Scerri
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401793646
Size: 26.26 MB
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This volume follows the successful book, which has helped to introduce and spread the Philosophy of Chemistry to a wider audience of philosophers, historians, science educators as well as chemists, physicists and biologists. The introduction summarizes the way in which the field has developed in the ten years since the previous volume was conceived and introduces several new authors who did not contribute to the first edition. The editors are well placed to assemble this book, as they are the editor in chief and deputy editors of the leading academic journal in the field, Foundations of Chemistry. The philosophy of chemistry remains a somewhat neglected field, unlike the philosophy of physics and the philosophy of biology. Why there has been little philosophical attention to the central discipline of chemistry among the three natural sciences is a theme that is explored by several of the contributors. This volume will do a great deal to redress this imbalance. Among the themes covered is the question of reduction of chemistry to physics, the reduction of biology to chemistry, whether true chemical laws exist and causality in chemistry. In addition more general questions of the nature of organic chemistry, biochemistry and chemical synthesis are examined by specialist in these areas.

The High Price Of Materialism

Author: Tim Kasser
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262611978
Size: 27.93 MB
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A study of how materialism and consumerism undermine our quality of life. In The High Price of Materialism, Tim Kasser offers a scientific explanation of how our contemporary culture of consumerism and materialism affects our everyday happiness and psychological health. Other writers have shown that once we have sufficient food, shelter, and clothing, further material gains do little to improve our well-being. Kasser goes beyond these findings to investigate how people's materialistic desires relate to their well-being. He shows that people whose values center on the accumulation of wealth or material possessions face a greater risk of unhappiness, including anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and problems with intimacy--regardless of age, income, or culture. Drawing on a decade's worth of empirical data, Kasser examines what happens when we organize our lives around materialistic pursuits. He looks at the effects on our internal experience and interpersonal relationships, as well as on our communities and the world at large. He shows that materialistic values actually undermine our well-being, as they perpetuate feelings of insecurity, weaken the ties that bind us, and make us feel less free. Kasser not only defines the problem but proposes ways we can change ourselves, our families, and society to become less materialistic.

The Routledge Companion To Philosophy Of Social Science

Author: Lee McIntyre
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315410079
Size: 33.83 MB
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The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Social Science is an outstanding guide to the major themes, movements, debates, and topics in the philosophy of social science. It includes thirty-seven newly written chapters, by many of the leading scholars in the field, as well as a comprehensive introduction by the editors. Insofar as possible, the material in this volume is presented in accessible language, with an eye toward undergraduate and graduate students who may be coming to some of this material for the first time. Scholars too will appreciate this clarity, along with the chance to read about the latest advances in the discipline. The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Social Science is broken up into four parts. Historical and Philosophical Context Concepts Debates Individual Sciences Edited by two of the leading scholars in the discipline, this volume is essential reading for anyone interested in the philosophy of social science, and its many areas of connection and overlap with key debates in the philosophy of science.