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Data Analysis And Signal Processing In Chromatography

Author: A. Felinger
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080525563
Size: 31.18 MB
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This book gives an overview of the numerical data analysis and signal treatment techniques that are used in chromatography and related separation techniques. Emphasis is given to the description of the symmetrical and asymmetrical chromatographic peak shape models. Both theoretical and empirical models are discussed. The fundamentals of data acquisition, types and effect of baseline noise, and methods of improving the signal-to-noise ratio (either in time or in frequency and wavelet domain) are thoroughly discussed. Resolution enhancement techniques, such as curve fitting, deconvolution by Fourier and wavelet transforms, iterative deconvolution, Kalman filtering and multivariate methods of curve resolution are all discussed with several chromatographic examples. Quantitative analysis by peak area of peak height measurement, the precision and accuracy of the quantitation of stand-alone or overlapping and symmetrical or asymmetrical peaks are treated. In a separate chapter, guidelines are given for the use of transform techniques for the analysis of chromatograms. A statistical description of peak overlap is given in the final chapters. Since the concept of resolution has to be reconsidered when one separates complex mixtures, the problem of resolution and overlap is quantitatively discussed by means of statistical methods, and by using Fourier analysis of the complex chromatogram. Features of this book • The ultimate source of numerical techniques to enhance chromatographic data • Gives a detailed description of signal and resolution enhancement techniques in a manner applicable for enhancing not only chromatography, but also spectroscopic and other analytical signals • The first book with a thorough overview of the statistics of peak overlap. This is the first volume to encompass both the simple and more sophisticated methods for the numerical treatment of chromatograms. It is, therefore, the fundamental resource of numerical analysis methods for every analyst.

Catalysis By Transition Metal Sulphides

Author: RAYBAUD Pascal
Publisher: Editions TECHNIP
ISBN: 2710809915
Size: 32.19 MB
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The main application of Transition Metal Sulphides (TMS) as solid catalysts is for production of clean fuels in petroleum refineries. The various feedstocks to be processed all contain more or less sulphur, included in highly stable heteroaromatic molecules. In order to meet the stringent specifications imposed worldwide nowadays on transportation fuels to reduce their environmental impact, catalytic hydroprocessing remains essential. In this process, sulphur is removed as H2S following the reaction between molecular hydrogen and the heteroaromatics. The reaction conditions and reaction medium composition are such that only TMS provide stable catalysts, generally supported on alumina. Both for their fundamental and applied interest, these fascinating systems are still the subject of a very significant research effort, while major advances have been made over the past 30 years, involving innovative preparation routes, sophisticated surface science experiments for characterisation, detailed kinetic and mechanistic studies, and state of the art DFT simulations giving unprecedented insight into the local structure as well as elementary steps at microscopic level. This book aims at providing a complete, comprehensive and updated survey of the field, useful for anyone involved: the student starting a research project, the academic researcher or the refinery engineer willing to deepen their knowledge on the catalytic as well as on the process aspects. 37 specialists from IFP Energies nouvelles, CNRS, or French universities have contributed, reporting a unique synthesis of the last 15 years of research. The preface written by Michèle Breysse, a well known leading scientist who devoted most of her fruitful career to this topic, puts this collective work into a meaningful historical perspective. Contents : Part 1. Fundamental Aspects: Insights from DFT calculations and experimental surface sciences. 1. Periodic trends in catalysis by sulphides. 2. Atomic scale structures of mixed lamellar sulphides. 3. Theoretical and microkinetic studies of hydrotreatment reactions. 4. Models of supported Co(Ni)MoS Catalysts. Part 2. Progress in the preparation and characterisation of industrial hydrotreating catalysts. 1. Principles involved in the preparation of hydrotreatment catalysts. 2. Progress in the preparation of new catalysts. 3. Progress in the preparation of catalysts with controlled acidity: case of aluminosilicate supports. 4. Activation and genesis of the active phase by sulfidation. 5. life cycle of an HDT catalyst. 6. Charaterisation of catalysts. Part 3. Applications to the production of clean fuels. 1. An overview of refining. 2. Deep desulphurisation of middle distillates. 3. Selective desulphurisation of catalytic cracking gasolines. 4. Hydrocracking. 5. Hydroprocessing and hydroconversion of residue fractions. 6. Hydrotreatment of vegetable oils. 7. Hydroconversion of coals. Conclusion.

Advances In Chromatography

Author: Nelu Grinberg
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351655507
Size: 21.92 MB
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For more than five decades, scientists and researchers have relied on the Advances in Chromatography series for the most up-to-date information on a wide range of developments in chromatographic methods and applications. For Volume 55, established, well-known chemists offer cutting-edge reviews of chromatographic methods to pay tribute to the late Eli Grushka, beloved series editor, who inspired and mentored many in the field of separation science. The clear presentation of topics and vivid illustrations for which this series has become known makes the material accessible and engaging to analytical, biochemical, organic, polymer, and pharmaceutical chemists at all levels of technical skill.

Practical Data Analysis In Chemistry

Author: Marcel Maeder
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080548838
Size: 12.81 MB
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The majority of modern instruments are computerised and provide incredible amounts of data. Methods that take advantage of the flood of data are now available; importantly they do not emulate 'graph paper analyses' on the computer. Modern computational methods are able to give us insights into data, but analysis or data fitting in chemistry requires the quantitative understanding of chemical processes. The results of this analysis allows the modelling and prediction of processes under new conditions, therefore saving on extensive experimentation. Practical Data Analysis in Chemistry exemplifies every aspect of theory applicable to data analysis using a short program in a Matlab or Excel spreadsheet, enabling the reader to study the programs, play with them and observe what happens. Suitable data are generated for each example in short routines, this ensuring a clear understanding of the data structure. Chapter 2 includes a brief introduction to matrix algebra and its implementation in Matlab and Excel while Chapter 3 covers the theory required for the modelling of chemical processes. This is followed by an introduction to linear and non-linear least-squares fitting, each demonstrated with typical applications. Finally Chapter 5 comprises a collection of several methods for model-free data analyses. * Includes a solid introduction to the simulation of equilibrium processes and the simulation of complex kinetic processes. * Provides examples of routines that are easily adapted to the processes investigated by the reader * 'Model-based' analysis (linear and non-linear regression) and 'model-free' analysis are covered

Scientific Data Ranking Methods

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080931937
Size: 23.95 MB
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This volume presents the basic mathematics of ranking methods through a didactic approach and the integration of relevant applications. Ranking methods can be applied in several different fields, including decision support, toxicology, environmental problems, proteomics and genomics, analytical chemistry, food chemistry, and QSAR. . Covers a wide range of applications, from the environment and toxicology to DNA sequencing . Incorporates contributions from renowned experts in the field . Meets the increasing demand for literature concerned with ranking methods and their applications

Issues In Analysis Measurement Monitoring Imaging And Remote Sensing Technology 2012 Edition

Author:
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1481645676
Size: 10.35 MB
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Issues in Analysis, Measurement, Monitoring, Imaging, and Remote Sensing Technology: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Chromatography. The editors have built Issues in Analysis, Measurement, Monitoring, Imaging, and Remote Sensing Technology: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Chromatography in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Analysis, Measurement, Monitoring, Imaging, and Remote Sensing Technology: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Encyclopedia Of Computer Science And Technology

Author: Jack Belzer
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824722531
Size: 46.90 MB
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"This comprehensive reference work provides immediate, fingertip access to state-of-the-art technology in nearly 700 self-contained articles written by over 900 international authorities. Each article in the Encyclopedia features current developments and trends in computers, software, vendors, and applications...extensive bibliographies of leading figures in the field, such as Samuel Alexander, John von Neumann, and Norbert Wiener...and in-depth analysis of future directions."

Data Analysis For Hyphenated Techniques

Author: E.J. Karjalainen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080544755
Size: 15.25 MB
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Based on a concrete set of working MATLAB programs, the book begins with a short program of snippets describing basic principles and proceeds to a complete application program filling a central analytical need: obtaining pure spectra from the observed overlapping spectra, with standard deviations for the solutions obtained. The strength of the book is the open nature of the programs. All programs can be read, tested and modified by the user. The mathematical principles needed for the proper treatment of experimental data are thoroughly described. The first part of the book describes how data is collected, converted and prepared for the actual deconvolution. Practical working algorithms such as the Savitzky-Golay smoothing method are emphasized. The reader can see how searches in spectral libraries can be greatly speeded up by proper formulation of the calculation. Basic signal processing is described by illustrative examples. The main part of the book describes the deconvolution of overlapping chromatographic peaks. Principle component analysis is described and used as a useful tool. The main emphasis is a discussion of a deconvolution method, OSCAR (Optimization by Stepwise Constraining of Alternating Regression), developed by the authors. The results can be validated as OSCAR calculates confidence intervals for the spectra and elution curves. For users who do not want to enter the programs by hand a separate CD-ROM is available. It contains the programs and extensive sample data files. The CD-ROM has instructional multimedia showing step by step how the programs are used for the problems in the book. The MATLAB programs and data files can be directly run on Windows® and Macintosh® computers having a MATLAB interpreter.