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Data Assessment For Electrical Surge Protective Devices

Author: Eddie Davis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493928929
Size: 58.48 MB
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This brief develops a data collection plan to assess loss related to electrical surges in homes, and explores the potential impact devices that prevent these surges could have in mitigating these losses. Key topics such as surge sources, surge effects and residential surge protection are clearly defined. Recent fire safety codes proposed a requirement that every dwelling unit be fitted with a surge protection device, as every year there is property damage to electrical and electronic equipment resulting from electrical surges. These proposals have not been implemented due to a lack of reliable data, which this brief seeks to change. The authors evaluate surge phenomena and their sources, surge protection methods, surge protection strategies and industry standards in order to present a data plan that can accurately assess loss related to electrical surges in homes.

Best Practices For Commercial Roof Mounted Photovoltaic System Installation

Author: Rosalie Wills
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 149392883X
Size: 63.94 MB
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This SpringerBrief presents information on a wide variety of hazards and the damage potential caused by installation of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The current installation practices for PV systems on roofs create electrical, fire, structural, and weather-related hazards that do not comply to current codes, standards and guidance documents. Potential dangers include structural loading, wind loads, hail, snow, debris accumulation, seismic hazards, firefighting hazards, and electrical hazards. Despite the increased popularity of PV systems after the environmental movement, research shows that the costs of installing PV systems outweigh the benefits. Hazards of PV systems on roofs have caused several incidents in the United States; the most notable in Bakersfield, California, and Mount Holly, North Carolina. Designed for fire engineers and professionals, Best Practices for Commercial Roof-Mounted Photovoltaic System Installation offers recommendations to set up PV systems safely and sustainably.

History Of Monetary Policy In India Since Independence

Author: Ashima Goyal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132219619
Size: 28.76 MB
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The book discusses Indian post-independence monetary history in the context of the country’s development and the global changes of the period. The conceptual framework used is the SIIO (Structure, Ideas, Institutions and Outcomes) paradigm. That is, structure and ideas become embedded in institutions and affect outcomes. Narrative history, data analysis and research reports demonstrate the dialectic between ideas and structure with respect to monetary history, aspects of India’s development, and the global institutions and events that impacted monetary choices. The history of the economy and of the global changes that affected it covers a time when major changes took place both in India and internationally. India’s greater openness is important both for it and for the world, but it occurred at a time of major global crises. How did these impact monetary choices and how did the latter help India navigate the crises while maintaining its trajectory towards greater liberalization? The book explores these and other relevant but under-analyzed questions. The initial combination of ideas and structure created fiscal dominance and made monetary policy procyclical. An aggregate supply-and-demand framework derived from forward-looking optimization subject to Indian structural constraints is able to explain growth and inflation outcomes in the light of policy actions. Using exogenous supply shocks to identify policy shocks and to isolate their effects, demonstrate that policy was sometimes exceedingly strict despite the common perception of a large monetary overhang. Surges and sudden stops in capital flow also constrained policy. But the three factors that cause a loss of monetary autonomy—governments, markets and openness—moderate each other. Markets moderate fiscal profligacy and global crises moderate market freedoms and ensure openness remains a sequenced and gradual process. The book argues greater current congruence between ideas and structure is improving institutions and contributing to India’s potential.

Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

Author: Yuanyuan Yang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319176560
Size: 51.59 MB
Format: PDF
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This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability theory, optimization, algorithm and protocol designs. All proposed mechanisms are evaluated by extensive simulations. Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks targets professionals and researchers working in networks, wireless communications, energy technology and information technology. Advanced-level students studying electrical engineering and computer science will also find this material useful as a study guide.

Assessment Of Total Evacuation Systems For Tall Buildings

Author: Enrico Ronchi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493910744
Size: 42.13 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This SpringerBrief focuses on the use of egress models to assess the optimal strategy for total evacuation in high-rise buildings. It investigates occupant relocation and evacuation strategies involving the exit stairs, elevators, sky bridges and combinations thereof. Chapters review existing information on this topic and describe case study simulations of a multi-component exit strategy. This review provides the architectural design, regulatory and research communities with a thorough understanding of the current and emerging evacuation procedures and possible future options. A model case study simulates seven possible strategies for the total evacuation of two identical twin towers linked with two sky-bridges at different heights. The authors present the layout of the building and the available egress components including both vertical and horizontal egress components, namely stairs, occupant evacuation elevators (OEEs), service elevators, transfer floors and sky-bridges. The evacuation strategies employ a continuous spatial representation evacuation model (Pathfinder) and are cross-validated by a fine network model (STEPS). Assessment of Total Evacuation Systems for Tall Buildings is intended for practitioners as a tool for analyzing evacuation methods and efficient exit strategies. Researchers working in architecture and fire safety will also find the book valuable.

Climate Change In Cyprus

Author: Theodoros Zachariadis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319296884
Size: 70.82 MB
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This book provides a concise overview of facts and projections about climate change in Cyprus and its region until the end of the 21st century. Climate change is expected to have adverse effects in Mediterranean Europe – the most serious compared to other European regions. Being an island state with a semi-arid climate in the Eastern Mediterranean, Cyprus is located in a hot spot. Based on the information available in the literature, it highlights the expected natural, economic and societal impacts of climate change and presents recommendations for the implementation of a national adaptation strategy. Despite the dismal outlook arising from this review, the book demonstrates that coping with climate change is possible, provided that proactive actions are taken by both the public and the private sector. Public authorities need to set clear priorities and set up adequate monitoring mechanisms that can help avoid large natural and economic damages at a later stage. Enabling private adaptation investments and properly pricing the use of natural resources are key priorities for investing in a climate resilient economy.

Climate Change And Cities

Author: Cynthia Rosenzweig
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139497405
Size: 20.68 MB
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Urban areas are home to over half the world's people and are at the forefront of the climate change issue. The need for a global research effort to establish the current understanding of climate change adaptation and mitigation at the city level is urgent. To meet this goal a coalition of international researchers - the Urban Climate Change Research Network (UCCRN) - was formed at the time of the C40 Large Cities Climate Summit in New York in 2007. This book is the First UCCRN Assessment Report on Climate Change and Cities. The authors are all international experts from a diverse range of cities with varying socio-economic conditions, from both the developing and developed world. It is invaluable for mayors, city officials and policymakers; urban sustainability officers and urban planners; and researchers, professors and advanced students.

Renewable Energy Problems And Prospects In Coachella Valley California

Author: James B. Pick
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319515268
Size: 74.81 MB
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The book analyzes the problems and potential of renewable energy development for the Coachella Valley of California and provides a useful case study for renewable energy feasibility assessments for other areas. A conceptual model, Integrated Policy Assessment Theory for Renewable Energy, is given and justified for renewable energy development in the Valley. Further, Central Place Theory, well known in urban geography, is discussed and it is seen to be very relevant to the understanding the Coachella Valley’s city sizes and renewable energy markets, compared to the greater Los Angeles region. The book’s research methods include geospatial mapping and analysis and interviews leaders in small innovative firms, government agencies, and nonprofits. The many findings of the book include evaluation of how the Valley’s socioeconomic and transportation features influence renewable energy development, the scope of markets for solar and wind energy in the Valley, spatial confluences of renewable energy facilities with other features, and the future potential of ground-source heat pumps. Benchmark comparison of the Coachella Valley is done with two leading wind and solar regions elsewhere in the country, to assess the Valley’s evolution and opportunities in renewable energy. The book concludes by evaluating the prospects and problems for the growth of renewable entrepreneurship, manufacturing, assembly, and operations in Coachella Valley. This leads to policy recommendations grounded in the book’s research findings, which are intended for use by governments, businesses, and nonprofits. The hope is that many of the developmental experiences from the Coachella Valley will be helpful not only within the Valley but to other communities nationwide and worldwide.

Water And Sustainable Agriculture

Author: Iván Francisco García-Tejero
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400720916
Size: 73.92 MB
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Irrigated agriculture, a vital component of general agriculture, supplies fruits, vegetables, and cereals consumed by humans and grains fed to animals. Consequently, agriculture is the largest user of fresh water globally, and irrigation practices in many parts of the world are biologically, economically, and socially unsustainable. Water management should balance the need for agricultural water and the need for a sustainable environment. Water-use efficiency is the prime challenge in worldwide farming practices where problems of water shortages are widespread. Currently, agriculture is undergoing significant changes in innovative irrigation, fertilizer technology, and agronomic expertise. These elements constitute a vital platform for sustainable agricultural success and for preventing environmental damage. This review presents several processes linked to environmental irrigation, balancing environmental protection with improved agricultural production.

Learning Classifier Systems In Data Mining

Author: Larry Bull
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540789782
Size: 72.46 MB
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The ability of Learning Classifier Systems (LCS) to solve complex real-world problems is becoming clear. This book brings together work by a number of individuals who demonstrate the good performance of LCS in a variety of domains.