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Daylight Science And Daylighting Technology

Author: Richard Kittler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441988164
Size: 37.93 MB
Format: PDF
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Sunlight profoundly influences the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere. Nature fuels the evolution of all living things, their visual systems, and the manner in which they adapt, accommodate, and habituate. Sun luminance measurements serve as data to calculate typical changes in the daily, monthly, and annual variability characteristics of daylight. Climate-based sky luminance patterns are used as models in predicting daylighting calculation and computer programs applied in architecture and building design. Historically, daylight science and daylighting technology has prioritized photometric methods of measurements, calculation, and graphical tools aimed at predicting or evaluating the daylighting of architectural design alternatives. However, due to a heightened awareness of general health and well-being, sunlight exposure and freedom from visual discomfort while undertaking visual tasks are now equally prioritized. Therefore, in order to assure optimal environmental quality, daylighting technology must be based on sound science. Daylight Science and Daylighting Technology, by Richard Kittler, Miroslav Kocifaj, and Stanislav Darula, sketches the entire evolution of daylight science from atmospheric science through apt visual workplace psychophysics.

Daylight Performance Of Buildings

Author: Marc Fontoynont
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1873936877
Size: 53.94 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Genetic sciences have produced a 'blue revolution' in the way we use aquatic biodiversity. By 2020 the world will be eating more farmed than wild fish, marine bacteria may yield the cure for cancer and deep-sea bacteria may be exploited to gobble up oil s

Solar Energy At Urban Scale

Author: Benoit Beckers
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118614364
Size: 13.74 MB
Format: PDF
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Increasing urbanization throughout the world, the depletion of fossil fuels and concerns about global warming have transformed the city into a physical problem of prime importance. This book proposes a multi-disciplinary and systematic approach concerning specialities as different as meteorology, geography, architecture and urban engineering systems, all surrounding the essential problem of solar radiation. It collects the points of view of 18 specialists from around the world on the interaction between solar energy and constructions, combining territorial, urban and architectural scales to better regulate energetic efficiency and light comfort for the sustainable city. The main subjects covered are: measures and models of solar irradiance (satellite observations, territorial and urban ground measurements, sky models, satellite data and urban mock-up), radiative contribution to the urban climate (local heat balance, radiative-aerodynamics coupling, evapotranspiration, Urban Heat Island), light and heat modeling (climate-based daylight modeling, geometrical models of the city, solar radiation modeling for urban environments, thermal simulation methods and algorithms) and urban planning, with special considerations for solar potential, solar impact and daylight rights in the temperate, northern and tropical climates, and the requirement of urban solar regulation. Contents 1. The Odyssey of Remote Sensing from Space: Half a Century of Satellites for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard. 2. Territorial and Urban Measurements, Marius Paulescu and Viorel Badescu. 3. Sky Luminance Models, Matej Kobav and Grega Bizjak. 4. Satellite Images Applied to Surface Solar Radiation Estimation, Bella Espinar and Philippe Blanc. 5. Worldwide Aspects of Solar Radiation Impact, Benoit Beckers. 6. Local Energy Balance, Pierre Kastendeuch. 7. Evapotranspiration, Marjorie Musy. 8. Multiscale Daylight Modeling for Urban Environments, John Mardaljevic and George Janes. 9. Geometrical Models of the City, Daniel G. Aliaga. 10. Radiative Simulation Methods, Pierre Beckers and Benoit Beckers. 11. Radiation Modeling Using the Finite Element Method, Tom van Eekelen. 12. Dense Cities in the Tropical Zone, Edward Ng. 13. Dense Cities in Temperate Climates: Solar and Daylight Rights, Guedi Capeluto. 14. Solar Potential and Solar Impact, Frédéric Monette and Benoit Beckers. Appendix 1. Table of Europe’s Platforms (Micro- and Minisatellites) for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard. Appendix 2. Commercial Operators of Earth Observation (EO) Satellites (as of January 1, 2012), Théo Pirard. Appendix 3. Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget, Benoit Beckers.

Dynamic Daylighting Architecture

Author: Helmut Köster
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783764367305
Size: 59.47 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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When planning buildings in which people are to work and live, the use of natural daylight and solar energy are playing increasingly important roles. The ultimate aim of all these building strategies is to compensate the different lighting requirements caused by the winter and summer climates by using simple but ingenious techniques. By guiding daylight, in particular by using a specially developed technique called Retrotechnology which involves using reflective elements, the construction of facades and building with glass can take on new dimensions. This volume is a detailed documentary of these new strategies and technologies and it will serve as an introduction to the basic principles, functions, designs and calculation methods of daylight guiding technology to all architects, lighting designers, building and conditioning engineers. Impressively illustrated with a large number of computer simulations and photographs of built examples, this book is the result of extensive research. It explains in detail the role Retrotechnological elements can have in fa ade and building technology as a factor in integral planning and discusses the consequences which the dynamic use of daylight will have in the future planning of buildings.

Human Factors In Lighting Third Edition

Author: Peter Robert Boyce
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439874891
Size: 50.71 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The availability of electric lighting has changed the lives of people the world over, yet as a major user of electricity it has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. This scrutiny has focused largely on the environmental consequences, with little consideration of the benefits of lighting. Human Factors in Lighting, Third Edition restores some balance to the discussion by examining the ways in which people interact with lighting. These interactions influence the ability to perform visual tasks; the perception of people, objects, and spaces; human comfort and behavior; as well as human health and safety. It is only by understanding how to use light to achieve these ends that lighting can be provided effectively and efficiently to the benefit of all. See What’s New in the Third Edition: New chapters on the non-image-forming system, lighting for pedestrians, light pollution, and lighting and electricity use Revision of all other chapters to update them to take into account the advances that have been made in our understanding of the effects of light on people over the last decade Integration of the combined effects of light via the visual and non-image-forming systems on performance and perception The book covers both the visual and the non-visual effects of light on people as well as the benefits of lighting and the costs it imposes on the environment. It details the consequences of exposure to lighting or lighting technology and the role of exposure to light on such basic functions of the body as circadian rhythms. The author combines information from many different sources and integrates them into a coherent overview of lighting practice that can be used to develop better lighting solutions at a lower environmental cost.

Daylighting

Author: Peter Tregenza
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135883033
Size: 37.94 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This authoritative and multi-disciplinary book provides architects, lighting specialists, and anyone else working daylight into design, with all the tools needed to incorporate this most fundamental element of architecture. It includes: an overview of current practice of daylighting in architecture and urban planning a review of recent research on daylighting and what this means to the practitioner a global vision of architectural lighting which is linked to the climates of the world and which integrates view, sunlight, diffuse skylight and electric lighting up-to-date tools for design in practice delivery of information in a variety of ways for interdisciplinary readers: graphics, mathematics, text, photographs and in-depth illustrations a clear structure: eleven chapters covering different aspects of lighting, a set of worksheets giving step-by-step examples of calculations and design procedures for use in practice, and a collection of algorithms and equations for reference by specialists and software designers. This book should trigger creative thought. It recognizes that good lighting design needs both knowledge and imagination.