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Debating Cancer

Author: Henry H Heng
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814520861
Size: 56.81 MB
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Cancer research is at a crossroads. Traditionally, cancer has been thought of as a disease of gene mutation, where the stepwise accumulation of cancer gene mutations is the key, and the identification of common gene mutations has been considered to be essential for diagnosis and treatment. Despite extensive research efforts and accumulated knowledge on cancer genes and pathways, the clinical benefits of this traditional approach have been limited. Recently, cancer genome sequencing has revealed an extensive amount of genetic heterogeneity where the long-expected common mutation drivers have been difficult, if not impossible, to identify. These realities ultimately challenge the conceptual framework of current cancer biology. This book introduces a new concept of genome theory of cancer evolution, in an attempt to unify the field. Many important and representative, but often confusing, questions and paradoxes are critically analyzed. By comparing gene- and genome-based theories, the hidden flaws of many popular viewpoints are addressed. This discussion is intended to initiate a much-needed critical re-evaluation of current cancer research. Contents:Introduction: Why Debate Cancer, and Why Now?The Gene Mutation Theory of CancerAlternative Theories to Explain CancerThe Surprise Cancer Genome Landscape Revealed by Cancer Genome Sequencing ProjectsUnraveling the Mystery of Cancer: Understanding Genome Variation Mediated Cancer EvolutionSignificance of the Insignificant: Why "Noise" is Essential for Cancer EvolutionDo Different Cancers Represent Different Species?Facts vs. Myths Readership: This book will be appreciated by the research community at large. It will also serve as an excellent resource for a wide range of readers, including researchers, graduate students, physicians, science reporters, and even policy-makers. Key Features:Currently, there exists no such book. This title represents a much-needed effort to systematically re-examine many concepts in cancer research which have remained relatively the same for decadesThe topics discussed are well-known paradoxes to researchers (over 50 of them). Addressing these questions will not only provide answers to key puzzles in the field but also introduce a new conceptual framework, the genome-based cancer evolution theoryThis book will encourage new ideas/approaches that bridge basic research and clinical applications. The analysis of provocative questions will spur a long overdue debate on this subjectKeywords:Cancer Evolution;Genome Theory;Cancer Heterogeneity;Cancer Landscape;Cancer Theories;Drug Resistance;Cancer Diagnosis;Cancer Research

The Value Of Systems And Complexity Sciences For Healthcare

Author: Joachim P. Sturmberg
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319262211
Size: 36.80 MB
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This visionary reframing of health and healthcare uses a complexity science approach to building healthcare systems that are accessible, effective, and prepared for change and challenges. Its holistic map for understanding the human organism emphasizes the interconnectedness of the individual’s physical, psychological, cognitive, and sociocultural functioning. Applications of this approach are described in primary, specialist, and emergency care and at the organizational and policy levels, from translating findings to practice, to problem solving and evaluation. In this model, the differences between disease and illness and treating illness and restoring health are not mere wordplay, but instead are robust concepts reflecting real-world issues and their solutions. Based on the Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of Systems and Complexity for Healthcare, topics covered include: • Coping with complexity and uncertainty: insights from studying epidemiology in family medicine • Anticipation in complex systems: potential implications for improving safety and quality in healthcare • Monitoring variability and complexity at the bedside • Viewing mental health through the lens of complexity science • Ethical complexities in systems healthcare: what care and for whom? • The value of systems and complexity thinking to enable change in adaptive healthcare organizations supported by informatics • If the facts don’t fit the theory, change the theory: implications for health system reform The Value of Systems and Complexity Sciences for Healthcare will interest and inspire health and disease researchers, health professionals, health care planners, health system financiers, health system administrators, health services administrators, health professional educators, and, last but not least, current and future patients.

Putting Systems And Complexity Sciences Into Practice

Author: Joachim P. Sturmberg
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319736361
Size: 17.55 MB
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This idea-packed resource takes systems and complexity sciences out of blue-sky territory and into the concrete world of contemporary healthcare practice. Beginning with a new reframing of health and illness, its chapters redesign traditional disease-centered models of care into modern, health-centered—and patient-centered—health service systems. The approaches shown here combine innovation and common sense to recognize and attend to patients’ needs across areas including health education and training, information accessibility, health service organization and delivery, and disease in individual context. The variety of solutions applied to this wide spectrum of issues shows the suitability of systems, complexity, and adaptive thinking to the ongoing objectives of making health services more responsive, effective, and equitable. Highlights of the coverage: Healthy smoker: an oxymoron? Maybe, but it is more complicated than that Transforming monitoring and improving care with variability-derived clinical decision support Linking Gulf War illness to genome instability, somatic evolution, and complex adaptive systems Complexity of knowledge in primary care: understanding the discipline’s requisite knowledge: a bibliometric study New ways of knowing and researching: integrating complexity into a translational health sciences program Understanding the emergency department ecosystem using agent-based modelling Putting Systems and Complexity Sciences into Practice is an inspiring idea book that sill interest health policymakers, health financiers, organizational leaders, healthcare administrators, clinicians, researchers, students, and interested lay readers.

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response And Transcriptional Reprogramming

Author: Kezhong Zhang
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889194361
Size: 65.81 MB
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an intracellular organelle responsible for protein folding and assembly, lipid and sterol biosynthesis, and calcium storage. A number of biochemical, physiological, or pathological stimuli can interrupt protein folding process, causing accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, a condition called “ER stress”. To cope with accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, the ER has evolved a group of signaling pathways termed “Unfolded Protein Response (UPR)” or “ER stress response” to align cellular physiology. To maintain ER homeostasis, transcriptional regulation mediated through multiple UPR branches is orchestrated to increase ER folding capacity, reduce ER workload, and promote degradation of misfolded proteins. In recent years, accumulating evidence suggests that ER stress-triggered transcriptional reprogramming exists in many pathophysiological processes and plays fundamental roles in the initiation and progression of a variety of diseases, such as metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. Understanding effects and mechanisms of ER stressassociated transcriptional reprogramming has high impact on many areas of molecular genetics and will be particularly informative to the development of pharmacologic avenues towards the prevention and treatment of modern common human diseases by targeting the UPR signaling. For these reasons, ER stress response and transcriptional reprogramming are a timely and necessary topic of discussion for Frontiers in Genetics. The important topics in this area include but not limited to: (1) ER-resident transcription factors and their involvements in ER stress response and cell physiology; (2) Physiologic roles and molecular mechanisms of ER stress-associated transcriptional regulation in lipid and glucose metabolism; (3) In vitro and in vivo models for ER stress-associated transcriptional reprogramming; (4) ER stress-associated transcriptional regulation in human disease; (5) Therapeutic potentials by targeting ER stress response pathways.

Genome Chaos

Author: Henry H. Heng
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780128136355
Size: 21.18 MB
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Genome Chaos: Rethinking Genetics, Evolution, and Molecular Medicine transports readers from Mendelian Genetics to 4D-genomics, building a case for genes and genomes as distinct biological entities, and positing that the genome, rather than individual genes, defines system inheritance and represents a clear unit of selection for macro-evolution. In authoring this thought-provoking text, Dr. Heng invigorates fresh discussions in genome theory and helps readers reevaluate their current understanding of human genetics, evolution, and new pathways for advancing molecular and precision medicine. Bridges basic research and clinical application and provides a foundation for re-examining the results of large-scale omics studies and advancing molecular medicine Gathers the most pressing questions in genomic and cytogenomic research Offers alternative explanations to timely puzzles in the field Contains eight evidence-based chapters that discuss 4d-genomics, genes and genomes as distinct biological entities, genome chaos and macro-cellular evolution, evolutionary cytogenetics and cancer, chromosomal coding and fuzzy inheritance, and more

Das Gen

Author: Siddhartha Mukherjee
ISBN: 9783596032358
Size: 61.38 MB
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Prostate Cancer A Comprehensive Perspective

Author: Ashutosh K Tewari
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447128648
Size: 24.50 MB
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Prostate cancer is the commonest male cancer with over 5 million survivors in US alone. Worldwide, the problem is staggering and has attracted significant attention by media, scientists and cancer experts. Significant research, discoveries, innovations and advances in treatment of this cancer have produced voluminous literature which is difficult to synthesize and assimilate by the medical community. Prostate Cancer: A Comprehensive Perspective is a comprehensive and definitive source which neatly resolves this problem. It covers relevant literature by leading experts in basic science, molecular biology, epidemiology, cancer prevention, cellular imaging, staging, treatment, targeted therapeutics and innovative technologies. Prostate Cancer: A Comprehensive Perspective, is a valuable and timely resource for urologists and oncologists.