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Deixis In Narrative

Author: Judith F. Duchan
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1136482180
Size: 24.42 MB
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This volume describes the theoretical and empirical results of a seven year collaborative effort of cognitive scientists to develop a computational model for narrative understanding. Disciplines represented include artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, communicative disorders, education, English, geography, linguistics, and philosophy. The book argues for an organized representational system -- a Deictic Center (DC) -- which is constructed by readers from language in a text combined with their world knowledge. As readers approach a new text they need to gather and maintain information about who the participants are and where and when the events take place. This information plays a central role in understanding the narrative. The editors claim that readers maintain this information without explicit textual reminders by including it in their mental model of the story world. Because of the centrality of the temporal, spatial, and character information in narratives, they developed their notion of a DC as a crucial part of the reader's mental model of the narrative. The events that carry the temporal and spatial core of the narrative are linguistically and conceptually constrained according to certain principles that can be relatively well defined. A narrative obviously unfolds one word, or one sentence, at a time. This volume suggests that cognitively a narrative usually unfolds one place and time at a time. This spatio-temporal location functions as part of the DC of the narrative. It is the "here" and "now" of the reader's "mind's eye" in the world of the story. Organized into seven parts, this book describes the goal of the cognitive science project resulting in this volume, the methodological approaches taken, and the history of the collaborative effort. It provides a historical and theoretical background underlying the DC theory, including discussions of deixis in language and the nature of fiction. It goes on to outline the computational framework and how it is used to represent deixis in narrative, and details the linguistic devices implicated in the DC theory. Other subjects covered include: crosslinguistic indicators of subjectivity, psychological investigations of the use of deixis by children and adults as they process narratives, conversation, direction giving, implications for emerging literacy, and a narrator's experience in writing a short story.

Cognitive Stylistics

Author: Elena Semino
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9789027233318
Size: 78.60 MB
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This book represents the state of the art in cognitive stylistics a rapidly expanding field at the interface between linguistics, literary studies and cognitive science. The twelve chapters combine linguistic analysis with insights from cognitive psychology and cognitive linguistics in order to arrive at innovative accounts of a range of literary and textual phenomena. The chapters cover a variety of literary texts, periods, and genres, including poetry, fictional and non-fictional narratives, and plays. Some of the chapters provide new approaches to phenomena that have a long tradition in literary and linguistic studies (such as humour, characterisation, figurative language, and metre), others focus on phenomena that have not yet received adequate attention (such as split-selves phenomena, mind style, and spatial language). This book is relevant to students and scholars in a wide range of areas within linguistics, literary studies and cognitive science.

Processing Interclausal Relationships

Author: Jean Costermans
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 131777969X
Size: 50.44 MB
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During the last 10 years, more and more linguistic and psycholinguistic research has been devoted to the study of discourse and written texts. Much of this research deals with the markers that underline the connections and the breaks between clauses and sentences plus the use of these markers -- by adults and children -- in the production and comprehension of oral and written material. In this volume, major observations and theoretical views from both sides of the Atlantic are brought together to appeal to a wide range of linguists, psychologists, and speech therapists. The volume presents contributions from researchers interested specifically in adult language and from others concerned with developmental aspects of language. Some contributors deal primarily with production, whereas others concentrate on comprehension. Some direct their attention to oral discourse while others focus on written texts. To preserve overall coherence, however, the contributors were given the following recommendations: * With regard to the level of linguistic analysis, the emphasis should be on the clause level -- more particularly, on the relationships between clauses. * Special emphasis should also be placed on linguistic markers (e.g., connectives, markers of segmentation, punctuation). * An overview of a given field of research should be offered, and current research should be put into perspective. * For contributors in the developmental field, attention should be paid to the fact that an account of the acquisition of some language functions throughout childhood should be included only if general principles of interclause relations that might be masked by the exclusive examination of adult evidence could be derived from it.

Wie Erz Hlt Poussin Proben Zur Anwendbarkeit Poetologischer Begriffe Aus Literatur Und Theaterwissenschaft Auf Werke Der Bildenden Kunst Versuch Einer Wechselseitigen Erhellung Der K Nste

Author: Werner Brück
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3735778771
Size: 31.58 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Auf welche Art und Weise erzeugt das Gestalten mit bildkünstlerischen Mitteln eine Erzählung? Immer wieder gestellt, gewinnt diese Frage subversiven Charakter. Zwar haben Literatur- und Theaterwissenschaft Begriffe zur Untersuchung sprachlicher Erzählung. Aber kann man diese Begriffe auch auf bildkünstlerisch erzeugte Erzählung anwenden? Dargestellte Handlung resultiert aus Darstellungshandlung, aus literarischem Sprachhandeln, aus bildkünstlerischem Gestaltungshandeln. Aufgrund der Inkommensurabiltät der Zeichensysteme muss künstlerisches Erzählen in seiner Spezifik von Farb- und Formverwendung (Malerei) bzw. sprachlicher Äusserung (Literatur) herausgearbeitet werden (H. White), was hier anhand der Werke von Pierre Corneille und Nicolas Poussin geschieht. Wissenschaftstheoretisches Ziel ist eine "Wechselseitige Erhellung der Künste" (O. Walzel), in diesem Falle auch als ein neues Einverständnis über relevante Fragestellungen und Methoden (T. Kuhn), in kritisch-rationalistischer Prüfung am Werk (K. Popper), die Subjektivität zur intersubjektiven Diskussion stellt. Der Autor folgt den Ansätzen von Aristoteles, Edmund Husserl, Kurt Badt u.a. Im Zuge einer Analyse der literarischen und bildkünstlerischen Schaffung von Räumlichkeit und Zeitlichkeit als Konstituenten narrativer Situativität werden differenziertere Begriffe zur Analyse bildnerischer Produktivität vorgestellt. Mit diesen Begriffen lassen sich narrative Strukturbildungen in der Malerei Poussins auf die Gestaltung mit Farbe und Form beziehen, was in zwölf ausführlichen Werkanalysen aufgezeigt wird.

The Oxford Handbook Of Cognitive Linguistics

Author: Dirk Geeraerts
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199890021
Size: 12.72 MB
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The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics presents a comprehensive overview of the main theoretical concepts and descriptive/theoretical models of Cognitive Linguistics, and covers its various subfields, theoretical as well as applied. The first twenty chapters give readers the opportunity to acquire a thorough knowledge of the fundamental analytic concepts and descriptive models of Cognitive Linguistics and their background. The book starts with a set of chapters discussing different conceptual phenomena that are recognized as key concepts in Cognitive Linguistics: prototypicality, metaphor, metonymy, embodiment, perspectivization, mental spaces, etc. A second set of chapters deals with Cognitive Grammar, Construction Grammar, and Word Grammar, which, each in their own way, bring together the basic concepts into a particular theory of grammar and a specific model for the description of grammatical phenomena. Special attention is given to the interrelation between Cognitive and Construction Grammar. A third set of chapters compares Cognitive Linguistics with other forms of linguistic research (functional linguistics, autonomous linguistics, and the history of linguistics), thus giving a readers a better grip on the position of Cognitive Linguistics within the landscape of linguistics at large. The remaining chapters apply these basic notions to various more specific linguistic domains, illustrating how Cognitive Linguistics deals with the traditional linguistic subdomains (phonology, morphology, lexicon, syntax, text and discourse), and demonstrating how it handles linguistic variation and change. Finally they consider its importance in the domain of Applied Linguistics, and look at interdisciplinary links with research fields such as philosophy and psychology. With a well-known cast of contributors from around the world, this reference work will be of interest to researchers and advanced students in (cognitive) linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, and anthropology.

Computer Games And Technical Communication

Author: Asst Prof Jennifer deWinter
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1472426401
Size: 13.64 MB
Format: PDF
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Taking as its point of departure the fundamental observation that games are both technical and symbolic, this collection investigates the multiple intersections between the study of computer games and the discipline of technical and professional writing. Contributors engage with questions related to workplace communities and gamic simulations; industry documentation; manuals, gameplay, and ethics; training, testing, and number crunching; and the work of games and gamifying work.

R Umliche Konzepte Und Sprachliche Strukturen

Author: Christopher Habel
Size: 24.80 MB
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For an interdisciplinary approach to linguistics spatial concepts are of especial significance in that they represent a link between linguistic and extra-linguistic cognition. In language production spatial representations form the starting-point for a class of linearization processes; vice versa, in language reception we have delinearization processes building up mental spatial representations from linguistic structures. Such processes are subject to restrictions specific to individual languages and resting on the respective relations between the language system and the conceptual system of spatial categories and relations.

How To Express Yourself With A Causal Connective

Author: Mirna Pit
Publisher: Rodopi
ISBN: 9789042008564
Size: 33.40 MB
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The Dutch, German and French languages display a variety of regularly used connectives all of which introduce causes, arguments or reasons, such as Dutchomdat, want and aangezien, German weil, denn and da, and Frenchparce que, car and puisque. Why should languages have different connectives to express the notion of backward causality? The central argument developed in this book is that different connectives express different degrees of subjectivity. In a series of corpus analyses it is shown that the degree of subjectivity of the main participant involved in the causal relation strongly predicts the occurrence of one or another connective. Hence, language users have at their disposal connectives of varying degrees of subjectivity. In an analysis of judiciary sentences, it is revealed that speakers are actually sensitive of this semantic distinction, and sometimes even exploit it for their communicative purposes: in order to conceal their subjective involvement, judges prefer objective over subjective connectives.This volume makes a contribution to the study of language in use, by applying empirical methods to authentic language data. It will be of interest to anyone concerned with discourse coherence, perspective and subjectivity, corpus linguistics and cross-linguistic analyses.

Inner Worlds

Author: Albert H. Kamp
Publisher: Brill Academic Pub
ISBN: 9780391042155
Size: 36.39 MB
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This book first establishes a cognitive linguistic approach that can be instructively applied to the text of Jonah. A subsequent examination of the nuances of the Hebrew text reveals how the author creates an inner world for the reader in which Jonah s perspectives on his misfortunes are contrasted with the transcendent perspective of a gracious God."