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Democracy S Fourth Wave

Author: Philip N. Howard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199323658
Size: 58.12 MB
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Did digital media really "cause" the Arab Spring, or is it an important factor of the story behind what might become democracy's fourth wave? An unlikely network of citizens used digital media to start a cascade of social protest that ultimately toppled four of the world's most entrenched dictators. Howard and Hussain find that the complex causal recipe includes several economic, political and cultural factors, but that digital media is consistently one of the most important sufficient and necessary conditions for explaining both the fragility of regimes and the success of social movements. This book looks at not only the unexpected evolution of events during the Arab Spring, but the deeper history of creative digital activism throughout the region.

The Triumph Of Democracy And The Eclipse Of The West

Author: Ewan Harrison
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137346868
Size: 59.53 MB
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This book explores the paradox of the worldwide spread of democracy and capitalism in an era of Western decline. The rest is overtaking the West as Samuel Huntington predicted, but because it is adopting Western institutions. The emerging global order offers unprecedented opportunities for the expansion of peace, prosperity, and freedom. Yet this is not the 'end of history', but the beginning of a post-Western future for the democratic project. The major conflicts of the future will occur between the established democracies of the West and emerging democracies in the developing world as they seek the benefits and recognition associated with membership of the democratic community. This 'clash of democratizations' will define world politics.

Democracy And Democratization In Comparative Perspective

Author: Jørgen Møller
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415633508
Size: 52.57 MB
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This book provides an introduction to democratic theory and empirical research on democracy and democratization. The book first examines conceptions of democracy from the origins in ancient Greece to the present day, then tracks when and where modern democracy has developed. On this basis, the book reviews the major debates and schools of thought dealing with domestic and international causes and consequences of democratization. Based on a systematic distinction between minimalist and maximalist definitions of democracy, the book provides a comprehensive and critical assessment of existing theories. Furthermore, using a comparative, historical perspective, it not only sketches the development in the conceptions of democracy and the corresponding empirical reality but also discusses whether causal relationships differ across periods. Finally, the book documents the way in which all of this has been reflected by the development within the literature. In doing so, the book offers a coherent framework, which students and scholars can use to grasp the literature on democracy and democratization as a whole. Democracy and Democratization in Comparative Perspective will be of interest to students of political science, democracy and democratization, comparative politics, political theory, and international relations.

The Challenges Of Intra Party Democracy

Author: William P. Cross
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191638005
Size: 41.22 MB
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The Challenges of Intra-Party Democracy provides a comprehensive examination of both the concept and the practice of intra-party democracy (IPD). Acknowledging that IPD is now widely viewed, among both democratic practitioners and scholars, as a normative good, this volume suggests that there is no single, or uniformly preferred, form of IPD. Rather, each party's version of IPD results from a series of choices they make relating to the organization and division of power internally. These decisions reflect many variables including a party's democratic ethos, its electoral context, state regulation and whether or not it is in government. Individual chapters examine the relationship between party models and IPD, the decline in party membership and activism, the role of the state in regulating party democracy, issues relating to gender and party organization, norms of candidate and leadership recruitment and selection, party policy development and party finance. The analysis considers the principal issues that parties (and the state) must consider relating to IPD in each area of party activity, the range of options open to them, current trends in terms of paths chosen, what these choices tell us about parties and, most importantly, what the implications of these choices are. In doing so, we offer a common language and set of questions relating to IPD that enhance the ability for consistent evaluation of the state of internal party democracy. Through thorough analysis of associated costs and benefits, we also provide a framework to assist with considerations of IPD reforms — particularly in terms of their scope, the range of options available and their implications. Comparative Politics is a series for students, teachers, and researchers of political science that deals with contemporary government and politics. Global in scope, books in the series are characterised by a stress on comparative analysis and strong methodological rigour. The series is published in association with the European Consortium for Political Research. For more information visit: The Comparative Politics series is edited by Professor David M. Farrell, School of Politics and International Relations, University College Dublin, and Kenneth Carty, Professor of Political Science, University of British Columbia.

Developing Democracy

Author: Larry Diamond
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801861567
Size: 46.37 MB
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In this book noted political sociologist Larry Diamond sets forth a distinctive theoretical perspective on democratic evolution and consolidation in the late twentieth century. Rejecting theories that posit preconditions for democracy—and thus dismiss its prospects in poor countries—Diamond argues instead for a "developmental" theory of democracy. This, he explains, is one which views democracy everywhere as a work in progress that emerges piecemeal, at different rates, in different ways and forms, in different countries. Diamond begins by assessing the "third wave" of global democratization that began in 1974. With a wealth of quantitative data and case illustrations, he shows that the third wave has come to an end, leaving a growing gap between the electoral form and the liberal substance of democracy. This underscores the hollow, fragile state of many democracies and the imperative of concolidation. He then defines the concept of democratic consolidation and identifies the conditions that foster it. These include strong political institutions, appropriate institutional designs, decentralization of power, a vibrant civil society, and improved economic and political performance. If new and troubled democracies are to be consolidated, Diamond argues, they must become more deeply democratic—more liberal, accountable, and responsive to their citizens. Drawing on extensive public opinion research in developing and postcommunist states, he demonstrates the importance of freedom, transparency, and the rule of law for generating the broad legitimacy that is the essence of democratic consolidation. The book concludes with a hopeful view of the prospects for a fourth wave of global democratization.

African Parliaments

Author: M. Salih
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1403979308
Size: 33.22 MB
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This book offers in-depth analysis of parliamentary development set in a historical context informed by Africa's post-1990s democratic resurgence. In particular, it illustrates how African parliaments are caught between the twin processes of being part of the machinery of government while exercising the function of holding government accountable.

Arab Spring And Arab Women

Author: Muhamad Olimat
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317937376
Size: 11.92 MB
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This volume examines the role of Arab women in Arab Spring and their contribution to the ongoing process of change sweeping the region. The book begins with an examination of the process of democratization and its impediments in the Arab World since the Second World War. It then looks at the conditions that led to the upsurge of the so-called Arab Spring. Finally, it underscores women’s role as participants, organizers, leaders, but also as victims. The main thesis of the book is that while Arab women were an integral part of the revolutionary efforts within the Arab Spring paradigm, they did not benefit from their sacrifices. Although they continue to be part of the process of change, their gains, rights and scope for participation are still limited. If the expansion of women’s participation and the scope of their rights do not seem to be a priority for revolutionary forces, women have made remarkable achievements, especially in some Arab Spring countries such as Yemen and Libya. The book includes case studies of some Arab Spring countries and other countries influenced by developments: Egypt, Bahrain, Kuwait, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, Jordan, Morocco and Saudi Arabia. It calls on revolutionary and reformist forces to give special attention to issues related to Arab women, as they are an indispensable pillar in the process of reform, development, peace and stability in the Middle East.

Media And Politics In Latin America

Author: Carolina Matos
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857721348
Size: 30.32 MB
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Latin America is an increasingly important geopolitical entity and its nations are emerging as some of the most influential and radical states in the modern world. The media conglomerates which control the television and radio platforms in these countries, such as the powerful_x000D_ Globo organization in Brazil and the Mercurial S.P.A. media corporation in Chile, have great_x000D_ political influence across the region. Since the 1980s, television stations, radio stations and newspapers in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina have become increasingly important in the state-building process. In this study, Carolina Matos contrasts public service broadcasting in Brazil and Latin America to that in Europe and the UK, engaging with current globalization debates and theories of cultural imperialism._x000D_ _x000D_ Left-wing political parties now dominate the South and Central American political landscape, enacting large-scale social change which is bolstered by an increasingly strong media presence in the lives of Latin American citizens. Matos examines the role public media has played in the processes of national development, democratization and international dialogue across Latin America, arguing that it can be a powerful tool for political and social inclusion. Placing media platforms in Latin America in their historical and contemporary contexts, Matos compares them to European public and private media outlets as well as addressing the challenges faced in the digital era._x000D_ _x000D_ As key countries in the region, such as Brazil and Mexico, begin to flex their economic and_x000D_ demographic muscle, Latin America is an increasingly influential entity in balance of global_x000D_ international relations. This book will be essential reading for students and scholars of Media, Politics and Cultural Studies, as well as those with an interest in Latin American culture.

Multi Party Democracies In South Asia

Author: M. D. Dharamdasani
Size: 67.95 MB
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With The Restoration Of Multi-Party Democracies In Nepal, Bangladesh And Pakistan (Pakistan Has Recently Returned To Military Rule) And India And Sri Lanka Being The Democracies Of Long Standing; South Asia Has Now Emerged As A Region Having An Extraordinary Democratic Environment.The Present Volume Consists Of The Papers Written By Eminent Scholars As Professor Anirudha Gupta, Professor S.K. Jha And Dr. B.C. Utreti On The Various Facets In General And India And Nepal In Particular. The Volume Will Be Of Great Use For Those Scholars Who Are Interested In The Theoretical And Operational Aspects Of Democracy In South Axis.

Democratic Transitions

Author: Sujian Guo
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131775106X
Size: 56.45 MB
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Democratic transitions have occurred in many countries in various regions across the globe, such as Southern Europe, Latin America, Africa, East and Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, and these nations have undergone simuntaneously political, economic and social transformations. Yet, the patterns and characteristics of transitions have varied significantly, and different modes of transition have resulted in different outcomes. This book offers cross-national comparisons of democratic transition since the turn of the twentieth century and asks what makes democracies succeed or fail. In doing so it explores the influence the mode of transition has on the longevity or durability of the democracy, by theoretically examining and quantitatively testing this relationship. The authors argue that the mode of transition directly impacts the success and failure of democracy, and suggest that cooperative transitions, where opposition groups work together with incumbent elites to peacefully transition the state, result in democracies that last longer and are associated with higher measures of democratic quality. Based on a cross-national dataset of all democratic transitioning states since 1900, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of international politics, comparative politics and democracy, and democratization studies.