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Democracy S Fourth Wave

Author: Philip N. Howard
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199936951
Size: 76.79 MB
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In 2011, the international community watched as citizens mobilized through the Internet and digital media to topple three of the world's most entrenched dictators: Ben Ali in Tunisia, Mubarak in Egypt, and Qaddafi in Libya. This book examines not only the unexpected evolution of events during the Arab Spring, but the longer history of desperate-and creative-digital activism through the Arab world.

Democracy S Fourth Wave

Author: Philip N. Howard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199936978
Size: 50.14 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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In 2011, the international community watched as citizens mobilized through the Internet and digital media to topple three of the world's most entrenched dictators: Ben Ali in Tunisia, Mubarak in Egypt, and Qaddafi in Libya. This book examines not only the unexpected evolution of events during the Arab Spring, but the longer history of desperate-and creative-digital activism through the Arab world.

Democracy S Fourth Wave

Author: Philip N. Howard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199323658
Size: 26.11 MB
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Did digital media really "cause" the Arab Spring, or is it an important factor of the story behind what might become democracy's fourth wave? An unlikely network of citizens used digital media to start a cascade of social protest that ultimately toppled four of the world's most entrenched dictators. Howard and Hussain find that the complex causal recipe includes several economic, political and cultural factors, but that digital media is consistently one of the most important sufficient and necessary conditions for explaining both the fragility of regimes and the success of social movements. This book looks at not only the unexpected evolution of events during the Arab Spring, but the deeper history of creative digital activism throughout the region.

The Third Wave

Author: Samuel P. Huntington
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
ISBN: 0806186046
Size: 65.70 MB
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Between 1974 and 1990 more than thirty countries in southern Europe, Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe shifted from authoritarian to democratic systems of government. This global democratic revolution is probably the most important political trend in the late twentieth century. In The Third Wave, Samuel P. Huntington analyzes the causes and nature of these democratic transitions, evaluates the prospects for stability of the new democracies, and explores the possibility of more countries becoming democratic. The recent transitions, he argues, are the third major wave of democratization in the modem world. Each of the two previous waves was followed by a reverse wave in which some countries shifted back to authoritarian government. Using concrete examples, empirical evidence, and insightful analysis, Huntington provides neither a theory nor a history of the third wave, but an explanation of why and how it occurred. Factors responsible for the democratic trend include the legitimacy dilemmas of authoritarian regimes; economic and social development; the changed role of the Catholic Church; the impact of the United States, the European Community, and the Soviet Union; and the "snowballing" phenomenon: change in one country stimulating change in others. Five key elite groups within and outside the nondemocratic regime played roles in shaping the various ways democratization occurred. Compromise was key to all democratizations, and elections and nonviolent tactics also were central. New democracies must deal with the "torturer problem" and the "praetorian problem" and attempt to develop democratic values and processes. Disillusionment with democracy, Huntington argues, is necessary to consolidating democracy. He concludes the book with an analysis of the political, economic, and cultural factors that will decide whether or not the third wave continues. Several "Guidelines for Democratizers" offer specific, practical suggestions for initiating and carrying out reform. Huntington's emphasis on practical application makes this book a valuable tool for anyone engaged in the democratization process. At this volatile time in history, Huntington's assessment of the processes of democratization is indispensable to understanding the future of democracy in the world.

Pax Technica

Author: Philip N. Howard
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300199473
Size: 43.92 MB
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A technology expert describes a possible future, and its repercussions in the area of privacy, social control and political manipulation, of a world where more and more things, like eyeglasses, thermostats and home security systems are reliant on the Internet.

New Media Campaigns And The Managed Citizen

Author: Philip N. Howard
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521847490
Size: 65.98 MB
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A critical assessment of the role that information technologies have come to play in contemporary campaigns.

Democracy In Retreat

Author: Joshua Kurlantzick
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 030018896X
Size: 20.74 MB
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DIVSince the end of the Cold War, the assumption among most political theorists has been that as nations develop economically, they will also become more democratic—especially if a vibrant middle class takes root. This assumption underlies the expansion of the European Union and much of American foreign policy, bolstered by such examples as South Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and even to some extent Russia. Where democratization has failed or retreated, aberrant conditions take the blame: Islamism, authoritarian Chinese influence, or perhaps the rise of local autocrats./divDIV /divDIVBut what if the failures of democracy are not exceptions? In this thought-provoking study of democratization, Joshua Kurlantzick proposes that the spate of retreating democracies, one after another over the past two decades, is not just a series of exceptions. Instead, it reflects a new and disturbing trend: democracy in worldwide decline. The author investigates the state of democracy in a variety of countries, why the middle class has turned against democracy in some cases, and whether the decline in global democratization is reversible./div

Uprisings In The Middle East And North Africa

Author: Philip Steele
Publisher: Crabtree Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780778725893
Size: 37.89 MB
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This fascinating title explores the significant global issues surrounding the politics, conflict, and violence of revolution and change in recent years in southwest Asia and North Africa. By going behind the media headlines, this important book examines the reasons why changes are taking place, who is involved in the changes, and what the public perceptions of these areas and their events are around the globe. From the Arab Spring to the Syrian refugee crisis, readers will look at the uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa and their global effects. Critical thinking questions, case studies, and debate sidebars help readers understand different perspectives about the uprisings, consider the importance of the countries involved to the rest of the world, and ask what the future holds for the region and its inhabitants.

Digital Cities

Author: Karen Mossberger
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199812950
Size: 66.65 MB
Format: PDF
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This analysis of how the ability to participate in society online affects political and economic opportunity finds that technology use matters in wages and income and civic participation and voting.

Tweeting To Power

Author: Jason Gainous
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199965072
Size: 34.98 MB
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Using theory and data, Gainous and Wagner illustrate how online social media is bypassing traditional media and creating new forums for the exchange of political information and campaigning.