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Developmental Robotics

Author: Angelo Cangelosi
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262028018
Size: 57.54 MB
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A comprehensive overview of an interdisciplinary approach to robotics that takes direct inspiration from the developmental and learning phenomena observed in children's cognitive development.

Re Enacting Sensorimotor Experience For Cognition

Author: Guido Schillaci
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889451488
Size: 13.29 MB
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Mastering the sensorimotor capabilities of our body is a skill that we acquire and refine over time, starting at the prenatal stages of development. This learning process is linked to brain development and is shaped by the rich set of multimodal information experienced while exploring and interacting with the environment. Evidence coming from neuroscience suggests the brain forms and mantains body representations as the main strategy to this mastering. Although it is still not clear how this knowledge is represented in our brain, it is reasonable to think that such internal models of the body undergo a continuous process of adaptation. They need to match growing corporal dimensions during development, as well as temporary changes in the characteristics of the body, such as the transient morphological alterations produced by the usage of tools. In the robotics community there is an increasing interest in reproducing similar mechanisms in artificial agents, mainly motivated by the aim of producing autonomous adaptive systems that can deal with complexity and uncertainty in human environments. Although promising results have been achieved in the context of sensorimotor learning and autonomous generation of body representations, it is still not clear how such low-level representations can be scaled up to more complex motor skills and how they can enable the development of cognitive capabilities. Recent findings from behavioural and brain studies suggests that processes of mental simulations of action-perception loops are likely to be executed in our brain and are dependent on internal motor representations. The capability to simulate sensorimotor experience might represent a key mechanism behind the implementation of further cognitive skills, such as self-detection, self-other distinction and imitation. Empirical investigation on the functioning of similar processes in the brain and on their implementation in artificial agents is fragmented. This e-book comprises a collection of manuscripts published by Frontiers in Robotics and Artificial Intelligence, under the section Humanoid Robotics, on the research topic re-enactment of sensorimotor experience for cognition in artificial agents. This compendium aims at condensing the latest theoretical, review and experimental studies that address new paradigms for learning and integrating multimodal sensorimotor information in artificial agents, re-use of the sensorimotor experience for cognitive development and further construction of more complex strategies and behaviours using these concepts. The authors would like to thank M.A. Dylan Andrade for his art work for the cover.

Computational And Robotic Models Of The Hierarchical Organization Of Behavior

Author: Gianluca Baldassarre
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642398758
Size: 61.53 MB
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Current robots and other artificial systems are typically able to accomplish only one single task. Overcoming this limitation requires the development of control architectures and learning algorithms that can support the acquisition and deployment of several different skills, which in turn seems to require a modular and hierarchical organization. In this way, different modules can acquire different skills without catastrophic interference, and higher-level components of the system can solve complex tasks by exploiting the skills encapsulated in the lower-level modules. While machine learning and robotics recognize the fundamental importance of the hierarchical organization of behavior for building robots that scale up to solve complex tasks, research in psychology and neuroscience shows increasing evidence that modularity and hierarchy are pivotal organization principles of behavior and of the brain. They might even lead to the cumulative acquisition of an ever-increasing number of skills, which seems to be a characteristic of mammals, and humans in particular. This book is a comprehensive overview of the state of the art on the modeling of the hierarchical organization of behavior in animals, and on its exploitation in robot controllers. The book perspective is highly interdisciplinary, featuring models belonging to all relevant areas, including machine learning, robotics, neural networks, and computational modeling in psychology and neuroscience. The book chapters review the authors' most recent contributions to the investigation of hierarchical behavior, and highlight the open questions and most promising research directions. As the contributing authors are among the pioneers carrying out fundamental work on this topic, the book covers the most important and topical issues in the field from a computationally informed, theoretically oriented perspective. The book will be of benefit to academic and industrial researchers and graduate students in related disciplines.

Handbook Of Child Psychology And Developmental Science Cognitive Processes

Author:
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118953843
Size: 25.56 MB
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The essential reference for human development theory, updatedand reconceptualized The Handbook of Child Psychology and DevelopmentalScience, a four-volume reference, is the field-defining work towhich all others are compared. First published in 1946, and now inits Seventh Edition, the Handbook has long been consideredthe definitive guide to the field of developmental science. Volume 2: Cognitive Processes describes cognitivedevelopment as a relational phenomenon that can be studied only aspart of a larger whole of the person and context relational systemthat sustains it. In this volume, specific domains of cognitivedevelopment are contextualized with respect to biological processesand sociocultural contexts. Furthermore, key themes and issues(e.g., the importance of symbolic systems and social understanding)are threaded across multiple chapters, although every each chapteris focused on a different domain within cognitive development.Thus, both within and across chapters, the complexity andinterconnectivity of cognitive development are wellilluminated. Learn about the inextricable intertwining of perceptualdevelopment, motor development, emotional development, and braindevelopment Understand the complexity of cognitive development withoutmisleading simplification, reducing cognitive development to itsbiological substrates, or viewing it as a passive socializationprocess Discover how each portion of the developmental processcontributes to subsequent cognitive development Examine the multiple processes – such as categorizing,reasoning, thinking, decision making and judgment – thatcomprise cognition The scholarship within this volume and, as well, across the fourvolumes of this edition, illustrate that developmental science isin the midst of a very exciting period. There is a paradigm shiftthat involves increasingly greater understanding of how todescribe, explain, and optimize the course of human life fordiverse individuals living within diverse contexts. ThisHandbook is the definitive reference for educators,policy-makers, researchers, students, and practitioners in humandevelopment, psychology, sociology, anthropology, andneuroscience.

Encyclopedia Of Artificial Intelligence

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Publisher: IGI Global Snippet
ISBN: 1599048493
Size: 16.44 MB
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"This book is a comprehensive and in-depth reference to the most recent developments in the field covering theoretical developments, techniques, technologies, among others"--Provided by publisher.

Maschinenethik

Author: Matthias Rath
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3658210834
Size: 41.59 MB
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Der Band untersucht die besonderen ethischen Probleme, die die Entwicklung autonom „handelnder“ und „kommunizierender“ medialer Systeme aufwirft. Da sie Prozesse nicht nur eigenständig vollziehen, sondern zugleich steuern, stellt sich die Frage, inwieweit sie in diesem „Handeln“ und „Entscheiden“ normativ orientiert werden können. Über frühere Entwicklungen hinaus entsteht zudem eine computergesteuerte digitale Infrastruktur, die alle symbolischen Operationen integriert und an sich bindet. Ausgehend von der Mediatisierungstheorie werden die medienethischen Implikationen solcher Systeme diskutiert.