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Direct Effect Of European Law

Author: Christopher J M Smith
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1136642595
Size: 37.19 MB
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First Published in 1995. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Direct Effect Of European Law And The Regulation Of Dangerous Substances

Author: Christopher J. M. Smith
Publisher: Taylor & Francis US
ISBN: 9782884490412
Size: 41.77 MB
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The doctrine of Direct Effect is an issue of profound importance to all those concerned with or affected by the implementation of European Union directives. The Doctrine of Direct Effect bestows responsibility for the implementation of directives on individual regulators, even if the member state itself has not made full arrangements for implementation. This book considers the doctrine with particular regard to the regulation of the discharge of dangerous substances to the aquatic environment in England and Wales. It contains a detailed analysis of the evolution, applications and implications of Direct Effect. A wide range of cases are studied, allowing the reader to fully realize the scope of this important doctrine.

Green Information Technology

Author: Mohammad Dastbaz
Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann
ISBN: 012801671X
Size: 55.90 MB
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We are living in the era of "Big Data" and the computing power required to deal with "Big Data" both in terms of its energy consumption and technical complexity is one of the key areas of research and development. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that centralized computing infrastructures (data centres) currently use 7 giga watts of electricity during peak loads. This translates into about 61 billion kilowatt hours of electricity used. By the EPA’s estimates, power-hungry data centres consume the annual output of 15 average-sized power plants. One of the top constraints to increasing computing power, besides the ability to cool, is simply delivering enough power to a given physical space. Green Information Technology: A Sustainable Approach offers in a single volume a broad collection of practical techniques and methodologies for designing, building and implementing a green technology strategy in any large enterprise environment, which up until now has been scattered in difficult-to-find scholarly resources. Included here is the latest information on emerging technologies and their environmental impact, how to effectively measure sustainability, discussions on sustainable hardware and software design, as well as how to use big data and cloud computing to drive efficiencies and establish a framework for sustainability in the information technology infrastructure. Written by recognized experts in both academia and industry, Green Information Technology: A Sustainable Approach is a must-have guide for researchers, computer architects, computer engineers and IT professionals with an interest in greater efficiency with less environmental impact. Introduces the concept of using green procurement and supply chain programs in the IT infrastructure. Discusses how to use big data to drive efficiencies and establish a framework for sustainability in the information technology infrastructure. Explains how cloud computing can be used to consolidate corporate IT environments using large-scale shared infrastructure reducing the overall environmental impact and unlocking new efficiencies. Provides specific use cases for Green IT such as data center energy efficiency and cloud computing sustainability and risk.

Radioactive Waste Control And Controversy

Author: Steven D. Chandler
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9789056990664
Size: 79.11 MB
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A study of the way policy and legislation for regulating radioactive wastes has developed in the UK since the first specific legislation was enacted in 1948. Particular emphasis is given to the Atomic Energy Authority Act 1954 and the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 which set the framework for control that has lasted to the present day. The reader will gain a clear understanding of the factors that have shaped the regulatory framework for radioactive waste and the matters that must be considered in making changes for the future.

Environmental And Energy Law

Author: Karen Makuch
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118257367
Size: 46.68 MB
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Despite bringing prosperity, industrialisation generally leads toincreasing levels of pollution which has a detrimental impact onthe environment. In response, legislation which seeks to control orprevent such impact has become common. Similarly, climatechange and energy security have become major drivers for theregulatory regimes that have emerged in the energy field. Given theglobal or regional scope of many environmental problems,international cooperation is often necessary to ensure suchlegislation is effective. The EU and the UK have contributed to thedevelopment of the environmental and energy law regimescurrently in force, spanning across international, transnationaland national levels. At the same time, practical responses toenvironmental and energy problems have largely been the focus ofengineers, scientists and other technical experts. Environmental & Energy Law attempts to bridge theknowledge gap between legal developments designed to achieveenvironmental and/or energy-related objectives and the practical,scientific and technical considerations applicable to the sameenvironmental problems. In particular, it attempts to convey abroad range of topical issues in environmental and energy law, fromclimate and energy regulation, technology innovation and transfer,to pollution control, environmental governance and enforcement. Inaddition the book outlines key sector specific legal regimes(including water, waste and air quality management), focusing onissues or topics that are particularly relevant to bothenvironmental and energy lawyers, and engineering, science andtechnology-oriented professionals and students. In this vein,the book guides the reader on some basic practical applications ofthe law within scientific, engineering and other practicalsettings. The book will be useful to all those working or studying in theenvironmental or energy arena, including law students, legalprofessionals, engineering and science students and professionals.By adopting a multi-disciplinary approach to environmental andenergy law, the book embraces all readerships and helps to addressthe often thorny problem of communication between scientists,engineers, lawyers and policy-makers.

General Principles Of Ec Law In A Process Of Development

Author: Ulf Bernitz
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041127054
Size: 79.90 MB
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What are the basic principles underlying European Community Law? Although no one seeks a purely descriptive answer to this question, the discussion it gives rise to is of immense significance both for theoretical legal studies and for legal practice. Over the years, scholars have convened from time to time to re-examine the question in the light of new developments. This important volume offers insights and findings of the latest such conference, held at Stockholm in March 2007, and sponsored by the Swedish Network for European Legal Studies. The nineteen essays here printed are all final author-edited versions of papers first presented at that conference. Far from merely an updating of the First Edition, which marked a 1999 conference held under the same auspices at Malm�, this book is entirely new. It underscores the importance of discovering the emergence of new general principles--linked, indeed, to such fundamental continuing concerns as democracy, accountability, transparency, direct effect, good administration, and European citizenship--as they develop in such increasingly important areas as the following: core aspects of competition and financial integration law; the ongoing process of European constitutionalization; the application of general principles in the new Member States; the growth of European private law; the successive creation of a jus commune europaeum; and the instrumental function of the EC Court. There is also special consideration attached to such overriding issues as the gap-filling function of the principles within the Community legal system, and the implications of the use of a comparative methodology. The authors include both eminent, well-known experts, many of whom took part in the 1999 Conference, and representatives of a new generation of younger scholars in the field. For the myriad parties involved in the evolution of the European project from a legal perspective, this book serves as a watershed, a thorough inspection of the foundations as they are perceived and understood at the present moment. It is sure to be consulted and cited often in the years to come.

Environmental Technology

Author: K.J.A. de Waal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940093663X
Size: 26.46 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Five billion people, at present the world population, inevitably affect the quality of the environment. The general public in an increasing number of countries is getting more and more concerned about this deterioration in quality. As a result many people cast doubts upon the desirability of the increase in energy consumption, the production of superfluous goods, ever-growing waste flows, harmful emissions of industrial processes, and so on. Actually, no one can simply ignore these issues. For instance, the authorities could introduce more environmental legislation aiming at a healthy environment; industries could change to cleaner production processes; the public at large should assume an even more conservation-minded attitude rather than confine themselves to shaking a finger at 'the industry'. In short, in all sectors of society there are often numerous ways and means of curbing environmental pollution. Clearly, environmental technology - the development and application of techniques to identify, quantify and reduce environmental problems - can make a substantial contribution here in many situations. Until now a large number of such new techniques have been developed. Many of these techniques not only appear to add greatly to reducing the burden on the environment, they sometimes also offer interesting economic advantages (savings in raw material and energy, etc.).

European Environmental Law

Author: Suzanne Kingston
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107014700
Size: 50.24 MB
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EU Environmental Law is a critical, comprehensive and engaging account of the essential and emerging issues in European environmental law and regulation today. Suitable for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students, the book delivers a thematic and contextual treatment of the subject for those taking courses in environmental law, environmental studies, regulation and public policy, and government and international relations. Placing the key issues in context, EU Environmental Law takes an interdisciplinary and thematic approach to help students to better understand the implementation and enforcement of environmental law and policy across Europe. It offers an accessible overview, and links theory with practical applications that will allow students to contextualise the outcomes of legal rules and their impact on public and private behaviours. It provides a definitive account of the subject, examining traditional topics such as nature conservation law, waste law and water law, alongside increasingly important fields such as the law of climate change, environmental human rights law, and regulation of GMOs and nanotechnology.

European Union Law

Author: Damian Chalmers
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139487884
Size: 40.90 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This eagerly awaited new edition has been significantly revised after extensive user feedback to meet current teaching requirements. The first major textbook to be published since the rejuvenation of the Lisbon Treaty, it retains the best elements of the first edition – the engaging, easily understandable writing style, extracts from a variety of sources showing the creation, interpretation and application of the law and comprehensive coverage. In addition it has separate chapters on EU law in national courts, governance and external relations reflecting the new directions in which the field is moving. The examination of the free movement of goods and competition law has been restructured. Chapter introductions clearly set out what will be covered in each section allowing students to approach complex material with confidence and detailed further reading sections encourage further study. Put simply, it is required reading for all serious students of EU law.