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Disorders Of Synaptic Plasticity And Schizophrenia

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Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080548628
Size: 49.90 MB
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Schizophrenia is a severe brain disorder that affects 1% of the population. Its cause is due to the interaction of a number of abnormal genes with environmental factors. This book summarizes new advances schizophrenia research that focus on the field of neural and synaptic plasticity. Synapses in the brain in schizophrenia show a wide range of disorders, both structural and functional. This volume covers the most active and promising of these new developments, and opens up new avenues for the treatment of schizophrenia. * Addresses new areas of research in neurotransmitters, receptors, vitamin transport, metabolism, and signaling. * Reviews the growing field of synaptic plasticity research * Provides links with other diseases of the Central Nervous System (CNS)

Synaptic Plasticity

Author: Michael R. Kreutz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3709109329
Size: 58.77 MB
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This book introduces the current concepts of molecular mechanisms in synaptic plasticity and provides a comprehensive overview of cutting-edge research technology used to investigate the molecular dynamics of the synapses. It explores current concepts on activity-dependent remodeling of the synaptic cytoskeleton and presents the latest ideas on the different forms of plasticity in synapses and dendrites. Synaptic Plasticity in Health and Disease not only supplies readers with extensive knowledge on the latest developments in research, but also with important information on clinical and applied aspects. Changes in spine synapses in different brain disease states, so-called synaptopathies, are explained and described by experts in the field. By outlining basic research findings as well as physiological and pathophysiological impacts on synaptic plasticity, the book represents an essential state-of-the-art work for scientists in the fields of biochemistry, molecular biology and the neurosciences, as well as for doctors in neurology and psychiatry alike.

International Review Of Neurobiology

Author: Ronald J. Bradley
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080495524
Size: 62.16 MB
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Published since 1959, International Review of Neurobiology is a well-known series appealing to neuroscientists, clinicians, psychologists, physiologists, and pharmacologists. Led by an internationally renowned editorial board, this important serial publishes both eclectic volumes made up of timely reviews and thematic volumes that focus on recent progress in a specific area of neurobiology research.

Brain Evolution Language And Psychopathology In Schizophrenia

Author: Paolo Brambilla
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134694423
Size: 67.20 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive review of new developments in the study of language processing and related neural networks in schizophrenia by addressing the complex link between psychopathology, language and evolution at different levels of analysis. Psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenia are mainly characterized by thought and language disorders, which are strictly intertwined. In particular, language is the distinctive dimension of human beings and is ontologically related to brain development. Although normal at the levels of segmental phonology and morphological organization, the speech of patients suffering from schizophrenia is often characterized by flattened intonation and word-finding difficulties. Furthermore, research suggests that the superior temporal gyrus and specific prefrontal areas which support language in humans are altered in people with schizophrenia. Brambilla and Marini bring together international contributors to explore the link between brain evolution and the psychopathological features of schizophrenia, with a focus on language and its neural underpinnings. Divided into three sections the book covers: • brain evolution and language phylogenesis • brain abnormalities in schizophrenia • psychopathology and schizophrenia. This theoretical approach will appeal to professionals including clinical psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, neuropsychiatrists, neuropsychologists, neurolinguists, and researchers considering the links between brain evolution, language and psychopathology in schizophrenia.

Integrating The Neurobiology Of Schizophrenia

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080475080
Size: 38.17 MB
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This book examines the role that dopamine plays in schizophrenia, examining its role in not only the symptoms of the disease but also in its treatment. It also reviews all neurotransmitters that have been implicated in schizophrenia, exploring the genetic data, clinical data implicating the transmitter, and the preclinical data exploring how a transmitter may interact with dopamine and contribute to the dopaminergic phenotype observed in the illness. This book will serve as an educational tool for instructors, a guide for clinicians, and be of interest to researchers. It is a good reference for researchers specialized in one particular area and interested in learning about other areas of pathology in schizophrenia and how they may all feed into each other. The book concludes with an overall integrative model assembling as many of these elements as possible.

Network Neuroscience

Author: Flavio Fröhlich
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128015861
Size: 80.58 MB
Format: PDF
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Studying brain networks has become a truly interdisciplinary endeavor, attracting students and seasoned researchers alike from a wide variety of academic backgrounds. What has been lacking is an introductory textbook that brings together the different fields and provides a gentle introduction to the major concepts and findings in the emerging field of network neuroscience. Network Neuroscience is a one-stop-shop that is of equal use to the neurobiologist, who is interested in understanding the quantitative methods employed in network neuroscience, and to the physicist or engineer, who is interested in neuroscience applications of mathematical and engineering tools. The book spans 27 chapters that cover everything from individual cells all the way to complex network disorders such as depression and autism spectrum disorders. An additional 12 toolboxes provide the necessary background for making network neuroscience accessible independent of the reader’s background. Dr. Flavio Frohlich (www.networkneuroscientist.org) wrote this book based on his experience of mentoring dozens of trainees in the Frohlich Lab, from undergraduate students to senior researchers. The Frohlich lab (www.frohlichlab.org) pursues a unique and integrated vision that combines computer simulations, animal model studies, human studies, and clinical trials with the goal of developing novel brain stimulation treatments for psychiatric disorders. The book is based on a course he teaches at UNC that has attracted trainees from many different departments, including neuroscience, biomedical engineering, psychology, cell biology, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry. Dr. Frohlich has consistently received rave reviews for his teaching. With this book he hopes to make his integrated view of neuroscience available to trainees and researchers on a global scale. His goal is to make the book the training manual for the next generation of (network) neuroscientists, who will be fusing biology, engineering, and medicine to unravel the big questions about the brain and to revolutionize psychiatry and neurology. Easy-to-read, comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of network neuroscience Includes 27 chapters packed with information on topics from single neurons to complex network disorders such as depression and autism Features 12 toolboxes serve as primers to provide essential background knowledge in the fields of biology, mathematics, engineering, and physics

Diet And Exercise In Cognitive Function And Neurological Diseases

Author: Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118840569
Size: 66.59 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Diet and exercise have long been recognized as important components of a healthy lifestyle, as they have a great impact on improving cardiovascular and cerebrovascular functions, lowering the risk of metabolic disorders, and contributing to healthy aging. As a greater proportion of the world’s population is living longer, there has been increased interest in understanding the role of nutrition and exercise in long-term neurological health and cognitive function. Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases discusses the role and impact that nutrition and activity have on cognitive function and neurological health. The book is divided into two sections. The first section focuses on diet and its impact on neurobiological processes. Chapters focus on the impacts of specific diets, such as the Mediterranean, ketogenic and vegan diets, as well as the role of specific nutrients, fats, fatty acids, and calorie restriction on neurological health and cognitive function. The second section of the book focuses on exercise, and its role in maintaining cognitive function, reducing neuroinflammatory responses, regulating adult neurogenesis, and healthy brain aging. Other chapters look at the impact of exercise in the management of specific neurological disorders such Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson’s Disease. Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases is a timely reference on the neurobiological interplay between diet and exercise on long-term brain health and cognitive function.

The Synapse

Author: Virginia M. Pickel
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0124186823
Size: 75.13 MB
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The Synapse summarizes recent advances in cellular and molecular mechanisms of synaptic transmission and provides new insights into neuronal plasticity and the cellular basis of neurological diseases. Part 1 provides an in-depth look at structural differences and distribution of various pre- and post-synaptic proteins found at glutamatergic synapses. Part 2 is dedicated to dendritic spines and their associated perisynaptic glia, which together constitute the tripartite synapse. The spines are portrayed as major sites for calcium sequestration and local protein synthesis. Part 3 highlights the important regional and cellular differences between glutamatergic transmission and that of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and acetylcholine that are commonly found in axon terminals without synaptic membrane specializations. Part 4 provides an overview of the synapse from the time of formation to degeneration under the powerful influence of aging or hormonal decline that leads to severe deficits in cognitive function. Each chapter is illustrated with drawings and images derived from calcium imaging, electron microscopic immunolabeling, or electrophysiology. This book is a valuable reference for neuroscientists and clinical neurologists in both research and clinical settings. A comprehensive reference focused on the structure and function of the synapse Covers the links between the synapse and neural plasticity and the cellular basis of neurologic disease Detailed coverage of dendritic spines and associated perisynaptic glia—the tripartite synapse Includes in-depth coverage of synapse degeneration due to aging or hormonal decline related to severe cognitive impairment

The Neuromodulators

Author: Ronald J. Bradley
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080460765
Size: 40.22 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Glutamate and GABA are the main information carrying neurotransmitters in the brain. Their action is modulated by a further series of small molecules called neuromodulators. The major neuromodulators in the brain are acetylcholine (both muscarinic and nicotinic), dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin. These have an enormous range of functions in a wide variety of brain mechanisms. This book attempts to give a general overview of this field with a section devoted to each of these. Each section starts with anatomy, both structural and functional. The various types of receptors for these agents are described and then the effects of stimulating these receptors. These receptors trigger a variety of electrical reactions that generally involve potassium, sodium or calcium channels. Also reviewed are other receptors that trigger a wide variety of post-synaptic signaling cascades that influence a large number of neuronal functions including receptor sensitivity, synaptic plasticity and gene manipulation. Finally the relevance of these systems to disease states is detailed. There are many reviews of individual neuromodulators but this is the only book where one author attempts to cover the whole field.