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The Pragmatic Turn

Author: Andreas K. Engel
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262034328
Size: 14.26 MB
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Cognitive science is experiencing a pragmatic turn away from the traditional representation-centered framework toward a view that focuses on understanding cognition as "enactive." This enactive view holds that cognition does not produce models of the world but rather subserves action as it is grounded in sensorimotor skills. In this volume, experts from cognitive science, neuroscience, psychology, robotics, and philosophy of mind assess the foundations and implications of a novel action-oriented view of cognition. Their contributions and supporting experimental evidence show that an enactive approach to cognitive science enables strong conceptual advances, and the chapters explore key concepts for this new model of cognition. The contributors discuss the implications of an enactive approach for cognitive development; action-oriented models of cognitive processing; action-oriented understandings of consciousness and experience; and the accompanying paradigm shifts in the fields of philosophy, brain science, robotics, and psychology. ContributorsMoshe Bar, Lawrence W. Barsalov, Olaf Blanke, Jeannette Bohg, Martin V. Butz, Peter F. Dominey, Andreas K. Engel, Judith M. Ford, Karl J. Friston, Chris D. Frith, Shaun Gallagher, Antonia Hamilton, Tobias Heed, Cecilia Heyes, Elisabeth Hill, Matej Hoffmann, Jakob Hohwy, Bernhard Hommel, Atsushi Iriki, Pierre Jacob, Henrik Jörntell, Jürgen Jost, James Kilner, Günther Knoblich, Peter König, Danica Kragic, Miriam Kyselo, Alexander Maye, Marek McGann, Richard Menary, Thomas Metzinger, Ezequiel Morsella, Saskia Nagel, Kevin J. O'Regan, Pierre-Yves Oudeyer, Giovanni Pezzulo, Tony J. Prescott, Wolfgang Prinz, Friedemann Pulvermüller, Robert Rupert, Marti Sanchez-Fibla, Andrew Schwartz, Anil K. Seth, Vicky Southgate, Antonella Tramacere, John K. Tsotsos, Paul F. M. J. Verschure, Gabriella Vigliocco, Gottfried Vosgerau

The Importance Of How We See Ourselves

Author: Marina A.L. Oshana
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739149350
Size: 80.85 MB
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The Importance of How We See Ourselves: Self-Identity and Responsible Agency analyzes the nature of the self and the phenomena of self-awareness and self-identity in an attempt to offer insight into the practical role self-conceptions play in moral development and responsible agency.

The Case For Qualia

Author: Harold I. Brown
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262731886
Size: 57.31 MB
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Many philosophers and cognitive scientists dismiss the notion of qualia, sensoryexperiences that are internal to the brain. Leading opponents of qualia (and of Indirect Realism,the philosophical position that has qualia as a central tenet) include Michael Tye, Daniel Dennett,Paul and Patricia Churchland, and even Frank Jackson, a former supporter. Qualiaphiles apparentlyface the difficulty of establishing philosophical contact with the real when their access to it isseen by qualiaphobes to be second-hand and, worse, hidden behind a "veil of sensation" -- a positionthat would slide easily into relativism and solipsism, presenting an ethical dilemma. InThe Case for Qualia, proponents of qualia defend the Indirect Realist positionand mount detailed counterarguments against opposing views. The book firstpresents philosophical defenses, with arguments propounding, variously, a new argument fromillusion, a sense-datum theory, dualism, "qualia realism," qualia as the "cement" of theexperiential world, and "subjective physicalism." Three scientific defenses follow, discussingcolor, heat, and the link between the external object and the internal representation. Finally,specific criticisms of opposing views include discussions of the Churchlands' "neurophilosophy,"answers to Frank Jackson's abandonment of qualia (one of which is titled, in a reference toJackson's famous thought experiment, "Why Frank Should Not Have Jilted Mary"), and refutations ofTransparency Theory. Contributors: Torin Alter, Michel Bitbol, Harold I. Brown,Mark Crooks, George Graham, C.L. Hardin, Terence E. Horgan, Robert J. Howell, Amy Kind, E.J. Lowe,Riccardo Manzotti, Barry Maund, Martine Nida-Rümelin, John O'Dea, Isabelle Peschard, MatjažPotrc, Diana Raffman, Howard Robinson, William S. Robinson, John R. Smythies, Edmond Wright EdmondWright is the editor of New Representationalisms: Essays in the Philosophy ofPerception and the author of Narrative, Perception, Language, andFaith.

Disorders Of Volition

Author: Natalie Sebanz
Publisher: Bradford Books
ISBN: 9780262513425
Size: 45.60 MB
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Philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, and psychiatrists examine the will and its pathologies from theoretical and empirical perspectives, offering a conceptual overview and discussing schizophrenia, depression, prefrontal lobe damage, and substance abuse as disorders of volition. Science tries to understand human action from two perspectives, the cognitive and the volitional. The volitional approach, in contrast to the more dominant "outside-in" studies of cognition, looks at actions from the inside out, examining how actions are formed and informed by internal conditions. In Disorders of Volition, scholars from a range of disciplines seek to advance our understanding of the processes supporting voluntary action by addressing conditions in which the will is impaired. Philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, and psychiatrists examine the will and its pathologies from both theoretical and empirical perspectives, offering a conceptual overview and discussing specific neurological and psychiatric conditions as disorders of volition.After presenting different conceptual frameworks that identify agency, decision making, and goal pursuit as central components of volition, the book examines how impairments in these and other aspects of volition manifest themselves in schizophrenia, depression, prefrontal lobe damage, and substance abuse. Contributors George Ainslie, Tim Bayne, Antoine Bechara, Paul W. Burgess, Anna-Lisa Cohen, Daniel Dennett, Stéphanie Dubal, Philippe Fossati, Chris Frith, Sam J. Gilbert, Peter Gollwitzer, Jordan Grafman, Patrick Haggard, Jay G. Hull, Marc Jeannerod, Roland Jouvent, Frank Krueger, Neil Levy, Peter F. Liddle, Kristen L. Mackiewitz, Thomas Metzinger, Jack B. Nitschke, Jiro Okuda, Adrian M. Owen, Chris Parry, Wolfgang Prinz, Joëlle Proust, Michael A. Sayette, Werner X. Schneider, Natalie Sebanz, Jon S. Simons, Laurie B. Slone, Sean A. Spence

Mind The Body

Author: Frédérique de Vignemont
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191054755
Size: 41.95 MB
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Mind the Body provides the first comprehensive treatment of bodily awareness and of the sense of bodily ownership, combining philosophical analysis with recent experimental results from cognitive science. Our own body seems to be the object that we know the best for we constantly receive a flow of internal information about it. Yet bodily awareness has attracted little attention in the literature, possibly because it seems reducible to William James's description of a 'feeling of the same old body always there'. But it is not true that our body always feels so familiar. In particular, puzzling neurological disorders and new bodily illusions raise a wide range of questions about the relationship between the body and the self. Although most of the time we experience our body as our own, it is possible to report feeling parts of our body as alien. It is also possible to experience extraneous objects, such as prosthetic hands, as our own. Hence, what makes us feel this particular body as our own? The fact that we feel sensations there? The fact that we can voluntarily move it? Or the fact that we need to care about it to survive? De Vignemont argues that to answer these questions, we need a better understanding of the various aspects of bodily self-awareness, including the spatiality of bodily sensations, their multimodality, their role in social cognition, and their relation to action and self-defence.

Forensic Psychiatry An Issue Of Psychiatric Clinics E Book

Author: Charles Scott
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1455747505
Size: 25.94 MB
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This subject, written for psychiatrists, is of importance and relevance to psychiatrists dealing with apsects of the practice that cross with legal professionals and with school and corporate professionals. This subject of Forensic Psychiatry presents topics on: Psychopharmacologic treatment of aggression; Assessment of blackouts and claimed amnesia; Forensic assessment of bullying; Testamentary capacity and guardianship assessments; Psychological testing and the assessment of malingering; Child murder by parents; Mass murderers: who are they and how might we stop them?; Child pornography and the Internet; Do’s and don’ts of depositions; Juvenile offenders: Updates on competency and culpability; The role of the forensic psychiatrist in the immigration process; and Psychiatric Management of the Problematic Employee. The topics are presented to include coverage of Nature and Definition of the Problem, Physical Examination, Evaluation, Competency Evaluation, Clinical Assessment Strategies, Psychiatric Testing Strategies, Reaching an Opinion, with Key Points of every topic.

The Integrative Neurobiology Of Affiliation

Author: Carol Sue Carter
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262531580
Size: 28.87 MB
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This book examines the biological, especially the neural, substrates of affiliation and related social behaviors. Affiliation refers to social behaviors that bring individuals closer together. This includes such associations as attachment, parent-offspring interactions, pair-bonding, and the building of coalitions. Affiliations provide a social matrix within which other behaviors, including reproduction and aggression, may occur. While reproduction and aggression also reduce the distance between individuals, their expression is regulated in part by the positive social fabric of affiliative behavior.Until recently, researchers have paid little attention to the regulatory physiology and neural processes that subserve affiliative behaviors. The integrative approach in this book reflects the constructive interactions between those who study behavior in the context of natural history and evolution and those who study the nervous system.The book contains the partial proceedings of a conference of the same title held in Washington, DC, in 1996. The full proceedings was published as part of the Annals of the York Academy of Sciences.