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Disruptive Power

Author: Taylor Owen
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199363862
Size: 35.80 MB
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Anonymous. WikiLeaks. The Syrian Electronic Army. Edward Snowden. Bitcoin. The Arab Spring. Five years ago, these terms were meaningless to the vast majority of people in the world. Today, they and many like them dominate the news and keep policymakers, security experts, and military and intelligence officials up at night. These groups and individuals are enabled and empowered by digital technology to confound and provoke the state in a way not possible before the Internet revolution. Theyare representative of a wide range of 21st century global actors and a new form of 21st century power: disruptive power. In Disruptive Power, Taylor Owen provides a sweeping look at the way that digital technologies are shaking up the workings of the institutions that have traditionally controlled international affairs: humanitarianism, diplomacy, war, journalism, activism, and finance. The traditional nation state system and the subsequent multinational system were founded on and have long functioned through a concentration of power in the state - through the military, currency controls, foreign policy, the rule of law, and so on. In this book, Owen argues that in every aspect of international affairs, the digitally enabled are changing the way the world works and disrupting the institutions that once held a monopoly on power. Each chapter of Owen's book looks at a different aspect of international affairs, profiling the disruptive innovators and demonstrating how they are challenging existing power structures for good and ill. Owen considers what constitutes successful online international action, what sorts of technologies are being used as well as what these technologies might look like a decade from now, and what new institutions will be needed to moderate the new power structures and ensure accountability. With cutting edge analysis of the fast-changing relationship between the declining state and increasingly powerful non-state actors, Disruptive Power is the essential road map for navigating a networked world.

Disruptive Power

Author: Taylor Owen
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199363889
Size: 50.48 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Anonymous. WikiLeaks. The Syrian Electronic Army. Edward Snowden. Bitcoin. The Arab Spring. Digital communication technologies have thrust the calculus of global political power into a period of unprecedented complexity. In every aspect of international affairs, digitally enabled actors are changing the way the world works and disrupting the institutions that once held a monopoly on power. No area is immune: humanitarianism, war, diplomacy, finance, activism, or journalism. In each, the government departments, international organizations and corporations who for a century were in charge, are being challenged by a new breed of international actor. Online, networked and decentralized, these new actors are innovating, for both good and ill, in the austere world of foreign policy. They are representative of a wide range of 21st century global actors and a new form of 21st century power: disruptive power. In Disruptive Power, Taylor Owen provides a sweeping look at the way that digital technologies are shaking up the workings of the institutions that have traditionally controlled international affairs. The nation state system and the subsequent multinational system were founded on and have long functioned through a concentration of power in the state. Owen looks at the tools that a wide range of new actors are using to increasingly control international affairs, and how their rise changes the way we understand and act in the world. He considers the bar for success in international digital action and the negative consequences of a radically decentralized international system. What new institutions will be needed to moderate the new power structures and ensure accountability? And how can governments and corporations act to promote positive behavior in a world of disruptive innovation? Owen takes on these questions and more in this probing and sober look at the frontier of international affairs, in a world enabled by information technology and increasingly led by disruptive innovators. With cutting edge analysis of the fast-changing relationship between the declining state and increasingly powerful non-state actors, Disruptive Power is the essential road map for navigating a networked world.

Computational Propaganda

Author: Samuel C. Woolley
Publisher: Oxford Studies in Digital Poli
ISBN: 019093140X
Size: 28.78 MB
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Social media platforms do not just circulate political ideas, they support manipulative disinformation campaigns. While some of these disinformation campaigns are carried out directly by individuals, most are waged by software, commonly known as bots, programmed to perform simple, repetitive, robotic tasks. Some social media bots collect and distribute legitimate information, while others communicate with and harass people, manipulate trending algorithms, and inundate systems with spam. Campaigns made up of bots, fake accounts, and trolls can be coordinated by one person, or a small group of people, to give the illusion of large-scale consensus. Some political regimes use political bots to silence opponents and to push official state messaging, to sway the vote during elections, and to defame critics, human rights defenders, civil society groups, and journalists. This book argues that such automation and platform manipulation, amounts to a new political communications mechanism that Samuel Woolley and Philip N. Noward call "computational propaganda." This differs from older styles of propaganda in that it uses algorithms, automation, and human curation to purposefully distribute misleading information over social media networks while it actively learns from and mimicks real people so as to manipulate public opinion across a diverse range of platforms and device networks. This book includes cases of computational propaganda from nine countries (both democratic and authoritarian) and four continents (North and South America, Europe, and Asia), covering propaganda efforts over a wide array of social media platforms and usage in different types of political processes (elections, referenda, and during political crises).

The Only Constant Is Change

Author: Ben Epstein
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190698985
Size: 42.86 MB
Format: PDF
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"The overarching goals of political communication rarely change, yet political communication strategies have evolved a great deal over the course of American history. As this book argues, these changes (at least the successful ones) occur during brief periods of dramatic and permanent transformation, are driven by political actors and organizations, and tend to follow predictable patterns each time. Covering over 300 years of such changes - what it identifies as Political Communication Revolutions - the book shows how this process of change happens and why. To do this, Ben Epstein, following an American Political Development approach, proposes a new model that accounts for the technological, behavioral, and political factors that lead to revolutionary political communication changes over time. In this way the book moves beyond the technological determinism that characterizes communication history scholarship and the medium-specific focus of much political communication work. The book identifies the political communication revolutions that have, in the United States, led to four, relatively stable political communication orders over history: the elite, mass, broadcast, and (the current) information orders. It identifies and tests three pattern phases of each revolution, ultimately sketching possible paths for the future"--

Cyber War Versus Cyber Realities

Author: Brandon Valeriano
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0190204796
Size: 63.58 MB
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Présentation de l'éditeur : "What Valeriano and Maness provide in this book is an empirically-grounded discussion of the reality of cyber conflict, based on an analysis of cyber incidents and disputes experienced by international states since 2001. They delineate patterns of cyber conflict to develop a larger theory of cyber war that gets at the processes leading to cyber conflict. They find that, in addition to being a little-used tactic, cyber incidents thus far have been of a rather low-level intensity and with few to no long-term effects. Interestingly, they also find that many cyber incidents are motivated by regional conflict. They argue that restraint is the norm in cyberspace and suggest there is evidence this norm can influence how the tactic is used in the future. In conclusion, the authors lay out a set of policy recommendations for proper defense against cyber threats that is built on restraint and regionalism."

The Real Cyber War

Author: Shawn M. Powers
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780252080708
Size: 64.80 MB
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"Cyber war is on the rise. For many, cyber war refers to the extension of military strategy and conflict into electronic networks, or more simply, the use of the internet for various forms of covert, forceful attack. In The Real Cyber War: The Political Economy of Internet Freedom, Shawn M. Powers and Michael Jablonski argue that, beyond covert attacks, cyber war refers to the utilization of the electronic networks for geopolitical purposes, and the internet, and the rules that govern it, can shape political opinions, consumer habits, cultural mores and values. Powers and Jablonski outline the historical genesis of the internet freedom movement, tracing its origins to modern day. Moving beyond debates about the democratic value of new and emerging media technologies, they focus on political, economic, and geopolitical factors driving internet freedom policies, with particular focus on the U.S. policy and the State Department's emerging doctrine in support of a universal freedom to connect. Far from a principled defense of the freedom of expression, this analysis reveals how internet governance and infrastructure have emerged as critical sites for geopolitical contest between major international actors, the results of which will shape 21st century statecraft, diplomacy, and conflict"--

Democracy S Fourth Wave

Author: Philip N. Howard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199936978
Size: 35.58 MB
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In 2011, the international community watched as citizens mobilized through the Internet and digital media to topple three of the world's most entrenched dictators: Ben Ali in Tunisia, Mubarak in Egypt, and Qaddafi in Libya. This book examines not only the unexpected evolution of events during the Arab Spring, but the longer history of desperate-and creative-digital activism through the Arab world.

Thinking The Unthinkable

Author: Nik Gowing
Publisher: John Catt Educational
ISBN: 9781911382744
Size: 46.18 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Thinking The Unthinkable is an investigation into why leaders have appeared more unable or unwilling than ever to anticipate the biggest issues of our time. In an era of 'wicked problems', why are current leadership behaviours and culture apparently not fit for purpose? What are the causes of so many failures in policy and strategic forecasting?

The Digital Origins Of Dictatorship And Democracy

Author: Philip N. Howard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199813663
Size: 59.76 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Around the developing world, political leaders face a dilemma: the very information and communication technologies that boost economic fortunes also undermine power structures. Globally, one in ten internet users is a Muslim living in a populous Muslim community. In these countries, young people are developing political identities online, and digital technologies are helping civil society build systems of political communication independent of the state and beyond easy manipulation by cultural or religious elites. With unique data on patterns of media ownership and technology use, The Digital Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy demonstrates how, since the mid-1990s, information technologies have had a role in political transformation. Democratic revolutions are not caused by new information technologies. But in the Muslim world, democratization is no longer possible without them.