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State Of African Cities

Author: United Nations Publications
Publisher: UN
ISBN: 9789211325980
Size: 53.31 MB
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The African continent is currently in the midst of simultaneously unfolding and highly significant demographic, economic, technological, environmental, urban and socio-political transitions. Africa's economic performance is promising, with booming cities supporting growing middle classes and creating sizable consumer markets. Despite significant overall growth, the continent continues to suffer under very rapid urban growth accompanied by massive urban poverty and many other social problems. These seem to indicate that the development trajectories followed by African nations since post-independence may not be able to deliver on the aspirations of broad based human development and prosperity for all. This report, therefore, argues for a bold re-imagining of prevailing models in order to steer the ongoing transitions towards greater sustainability based on a thorough review of all available options. That is especially the case since the already daunting urban challenges in Africa are now being exacerbated by the new vulnerabilities and threats associated with climate and environmental change.

Government Reports Annual Index

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Sections 1-2. Keyword Index.--Section 3. Personal author index.--Section 4. Corporate author index.-- Section 5. Contract/grant number index, NTIS order/report number index 1-E.--Section 6. NTIS order/report number index F-Z.

Growth And Productivity In Agriculture And Agribusiness

Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821386468
Size: 47.66 MB
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The report assesses the World Bank Group?s support for growth and productivity in the agriculture sector. Enhancing agricultural growth and productivity is essential to meeting the worldwide demand for food and to reducing poverty, particularly in the poorest developing countries. Between 1998 and 2008, the period covered by this evaluation, the World Bank Group (WBG) provided $23.7 billion in financing for agriculture and agribusiness in 108 countries (roughly 8 percent of total WBG financing), spanning areas from irrigation and marketing to research and extension. However, this was a time of declining focus on agricultural growth and productivity by both countries and donors. The cost of inadequate attention to agriculture, especially in agriculture-based economies, came into focus with the food crisis of 2007-08. The crisis added momentum to an emerging renewal of attention and stepped-up financing to agriculture and agribusiness at the World Bank and International Finance Corporation (IFC), as well as at several multilateral and bilateral agencies. World Bank financing rose two and a half times from 2008 to 2009, though that increase in lending seems to have been accompanied by a decline in analytical work, which this review finds valuable for results. This evaluation seeks to provide lessons from successes and failures to help improve the development impact of the renewed attention to the sector. Ratings against the World Bank?s stated objectives and IFC?s market-based benchmarks for agriculture and agribusiness projects have been equal to or above portfolio averages in East Asia, Latin America, and the transition economies in Europe, with notable successes over a long period in China and India. But performance of WBG interventions has been well below average in Sub-Saharan Africa, where IFC has had little engagement in agribusiness. Inconsistent client commitment and weak capacity have limited the effectiveness of WBG support in agriculture-based economies, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, and constraints on staffing and internal coordination within the WBG have also hurt outcomes. Financial sustainability has been constrained by insufficient government funding and the difficulty of maintaining agricultural services and infrastructure. The WBG has a unique opportunity to match the increases in the financing for agriculture with sharper focus on improving agricultural growth and productivity in agriculture-based economies, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa. Greater effort will be needed to connect sectoral interventions and achieve synergies from public and private sector interventions; to build capacity and knowledge exchange; to take stock of experience in rain-fed agriculture; to ensure attention to financial sustainability and to cross-cutting issues of gender, environmental and social impacts, and climate; and to better integrate WBG support at the global and regional levels with that at the country level.

Millions Fed

Author: David J. Spielman
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
ISBN: 089629661X
Size: 64.61 MB
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Humanity has made enormous progress in the past 50 years toward eliminating hunger and malnutrition. Some five billion people--more than 80 percent of the world's population--have enough food to live healthy, productive lives. Agricultural development has contributed significantly to these gains, while also fostering economic growth and poverty reduction in some of the world's poorest countries.

Opening The Black Box

Author: Helene Grandvoinnet
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464804826
Size: 26.44 MB
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Opening the Black Box: Contextual Drivers of Social Accountability fills an important knowledge gap by providing guidance on how to assess contextual drivers of social accountability effectiveness. This publication aims to more strategically support citizen engagement at the country level and for a specific issue or problem. The report proposes a novel framing of social accountability as the interplay of constitutive elements: citizen action and state action, supported by three enabling levers: civic mobilization, interface and information. For each of these constitutive elements, the report identifies 'drivers' of contextual effectiveness which take into account a broad range of contextual factors (e.g., social, political and intervention-based, including information and communication technologies). Opening the Black Box offers detailed guidance on how to assess each driver. It also applies the framework at two levels. At the country level, the report looks at 'archetypes' of challenging country contexts, such as regimes with no formal space or full support for citizen-state engagement and fragile and conflict-affected situations. The report also illustrates the use of the framework to analyze specific social accountability interventions through four case studies: Sierra Leone, Pakistan, Yemen, and the Kyrgyz Republic.

Catalyzing Development Through Ict Adoption

Author: Harleen Kaur
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319565230
Size: 59.73 MB
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This book examines the role that Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) play in growth and economic development promotion, specifically for developing countries. It highlights multiple methodologies for quantifying the impact of ICTs. This includes quantitative and qualitative methods, but also novel, conclusive and informative methodological approaches for measuring ICTs influence on economic development. The book highlights trends, perspectives, and success stories for different developing countries. ICTs bring new business models, innovations, capital-labor substitution, improved goods and services to developing markets. Because they can spread rapidly, with little cost and require minimal skills for usage, ICTs create a solid background for social and economic gains. They enable significant reduction in information asymmetries, which improves access to economic activities for multitude of agents, fostering participation, inter alias in labor market of disadvantaged societal groups. After almost two decades of rapid diffusion of ICT in developing world, this book seeks to assess the real benefits and consequences of ICTs adoption in developing countries. The chapters use broad, real-world based evidence to provide a better understanding of the precise nature of new technologies and their impact of the country`s economy and society.

Gender In Agriculture Sourcebook

Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821375881
Size: 32.89 MB
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The 'Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook' provides an up-to-date understanding of gender issues and a rich compilation of compelling evidence of good practices and lessons learned to guide practitioners in integrating gender dimensions into agricultural projects and programs. It is serves as a tool for: guidance; showcasing key principles in integrating gender into projects; stimulating the imagination of practitioners to apply lessons learned, experiences, and innovations to the design of future support and investment in the agriculture sector. The Sourcebook draws on a wide range of experience from World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and other donor agencies, governments, institutions, and groups active in agricultural development. The Sourcebook looks at: access to and control of assets; access to markets, information and organization; and capacity to manage risk and vulnerability through a gender lens. There are 16 modules covering themes of cross-cutting importance for agriculture with strong gender dimensions (Policy, Public Administration and Governance; Agricultural Innovation and Education; Food Security; Markets; Rural Finance; Rural Infrastructure; Water; Land; Labor; Natural Resource Management; and Disaster and Post-Conflict Management) and specific subsectors in agriculture (Crops, Livestock, Forestry, and Fisheries). A separate module on Monitoring and Evaluation is included, responding to the need to track implementation and development impact. Each module contains three different sub-units: (1) A Module Overview gives a broad introduction to the topic and provides a summary of major development issues in the sector and rationale of looking at gender dimension; (2) Thematic Notes provide a brief and technically sound guide in gender integration in selected themes with lessons learned, guidelines, checklists, organizing principles, key questions, and key performance indicators; and (3) Innovative Activity Profiles describe the design and innovative features of recent and exciting projects and activities that have been implemented or are ongoing.

Resilience Of An African Giant

Author: Johannes Herderschee
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821389092
Size: 40.62 MB
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The development of an effective state, a reliable infrastructure, and a dynamic private sector has long been hampered by political economy obstacles in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Resilience of an African Giant identifies these obstacles, which prevent the country from realizing its economic potential as the second-largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, and outlines how they can be—and in some cases have been—overcome. Four instruments that have been used to boost economic development in the past and that can contribute to more development in the future are explored in the book: coordination among those who control or influence policy, application of new technologies, leveraging of external anchors, and development of social accountability networks. This book pulls together an impressive body of research on the exemplary transition of a country from a state of conflict to a post-conflict situation, and from there toward becoming a country with legitimate institutions created by free, democratic, and transparent elections.… I therefore wholeheartedly recommend it to all who are interested in development, particularly to policy makers in my country, as well as its partners.