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Dna Replication Damage From Environmental Carcinogens

Author: Huidong Zhang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401772126
Size: 32.85 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 2018
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This book reviews the main concepts concerning DNA damage due to environmental carcinogens, the effects of DNA damage on DNA replication using a single DNA polymerase or DNA replisome, and the effects of carcinogens on various cell activities. It also introduces the detailed protocols for bypassing DNA damage. As we know, various environmental carcinogens are produced as a result of industry, agriculture, chemical engineering and vehicle exhaust in our daily life. It has been reported that the environmental carcinogens can be connected to tumors and cancer, directly threatening human health. In this regard, DNA replication is highly susceptible to damage. This book provides graduate students and researchers with an overview of the effects of environmental carcinogens on DNA replication and biological activities in cells. It offers important information for research in the areas of biochemistry, cell biology, medicine, toxicology and public health.

Dna Replication Control In Microbial Cell Factories

Author: Monika Glinkowska
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319105337
Size: 80.30 MB
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This work describes the current knowledge of biochemical mechanisms regulating initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli, which focuses on the control of activity of the DnaA protein. Examples of direct linkages between DNA replication and other cellular processes are provided. In addition, similarities of the mechanisms of regulation of DNA replication operating in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are identified, and implications for understanding more complex processes, like carcinogenesis are suggested. Studies of recent years provided evidence that regulation of DNA replication in bacteria is more complex than previously anticipated. Multiple layers of control seem to ensure coordination of this process with the increase of cellular mass and the division cycle. Metabolic processes and membrane composition may serve as points where integration of genome replication with growth conditions occurs. It is also likely that coupling of DNA synthesis with cellular metabolism may involve interactions of replication proteins with other macromolecular complexes, responsible for various cellular processes. Thus, the exact set of factors participating in triggering the replication initiation may differ depending on growth conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation of DNA duplication requires placing this process in the context of the current knowledge on bacterial metabolism, as well as cellular and chromosomal structure. Moreover, in both Escherichia coli and eukaryotic cells, replication initiator proteins were shown to play other roles in addition to driving the assembly of replication complexes, which constitutes another, yet not sufficiently understood, layer of coordinating DNA replication with the cell cycle.

Cell Aging Molecular Mechanisms And Implications For Disease

Author: Christian Behl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642451799
Size: 31.45 MB
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Aging represents a physiological and per se non-pathological and multifactorial process involving a set of key genes and mechanisms being triggered by different endogenous and exogenous factors. Since aging is a major risk factor in connection with a variety of human disorders, it is increasingly becoming a central topic in biochemical and medical research. The plethora of theories on aging – some of which have been discussed for decades – are neither isolated nor contradictory but instead can be connected in a network of pathways and processes at the cellular and molecular levels. This book summarizes the most prominent and important approaches, focusing on telomeres, DNA damage and oxidative stress as well as on the possible role of nutrition, the interplay between genes and environment (epigenetics) and intracellular protein homeostasis and introduces some genes that have actually extended life spans in animal models. Linking these different determinants of aging with disease, this volume aims to reveal their multiple interdependencies. We see that there is no single “perfect” theory of aging and that instead it is possible to define what the authors call the molecular aging matrix of the cell. A better knowledge of its key mechanisms and the mutual connections between its components will lead to a better understanding of age-associated disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Nanozymes Next Wave Of Artificial Enzymes

Author: Xiaoyu Wang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662530686
Size: 11.28 MB
Format: PDF
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This book describes the fundamental concepts, the latest developments and the outlook of the field of nanozymes (i.e., the catalytic nanomaterials with enzymatic characteristics). As one of today’s most exciting fields, nanozyme research lies at the interface of chemistry, biology, materials science and nanotechnology. Each of the book’s six chapters explores advances in nanozymes. Following an introduction to the rise of nanozymes research in the course of research on natural enzymes and artificial enzymes in Chapter 1, Chapters 2 through 5 discuss different nanomaterials used to mimic various natural enzymes, from carbon-based and metal-based nanomaterials to metal oxide-based nanomaterials and other nanomaterials. In each of these chapters, the nanomaterials’ enzyme mimetic activities, catalytic mechanisms and key applications are covered. In closing, Chapter 6 addresses the current challenges and outlines further directions for nanozymes. Presenting extensive information on nanozymes and supplemented with a wealth of color illustrations and tables, the book offers an ideal guide for readers from disparate areas, including analytical chemistry, materials science, nanoscience and nanotechnology, biomedical and clinical engineering, environmental science and engineering, green chemistry, and novel catalysis.

The Chaperonopathies

Author: Alberto J.L. Macario
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400746679
Size: 40.58 MB
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This Brief provides a concise review of chaperonopathies, i.e., diseases in which molecular chaperones play an etiologic-pathogenic role. Introductory chapters deal with the chaperoning system and chaperoning teams and networks, HSP-chaperone subpopulations, the locations and functions of chaperones, and chaperone genes in humans. Other chapters present the chaperonopathies in general, including their molecular features and mechanistic classification into by defect, excess, or mistake. Subsequent chapters discuss the chaperonopathies in more detail, focusing on their distinctive characteristics: primary or secondary; quantitative and/or qualitative; structural and hereditary or acquired; genetic polymorphisms; gene dysregulation; age-related; associated with cancer, chronic inflammatory conditions, and autoimmune diseases. The interconnections between the chaperoning and the immune systems in cancer development, chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, and ageing are outlined, which leads to a discussion on the future prospects of chaperonotherapy. The latter may consist of chaperone gene and protein replacement/supplementation in cases of deficiency and of gene or protein blocking when the chaperone actively promotes disease. The last chapter presents the extracellular chaperones and details on how the chaperone Hsp60 is secreted into the extracellular space and, thus, appears in the blood of cancer patients with potential to participate in carcinogenesis and chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Chaperones as clinically useful biomarkers are mentioned when pertinent. Likewise, guidelines for clinical evaluation of chaperonopathies and for their histopathological and molecular identification are provided throughout. The book also provides extensive bibliography organized by chapter and topic with comments.

Water Cycle Management

Author: Xiaochang C. Wang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662458217
Size: 10.65 MB
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This book focuses on environmental engineering, and on wastewater treatment and reuse in particular, which is a vital aspect for countries and regions suffering from water shortages. It introduces a new water cycle management concept for designing water systems that mimic the hydrological cycle, where reclaimed water is produced, stored/regulated, supplied and used in a semi-natural manner so that its self-purification capacity and system efficiency can be maximized. To ensure safe water throughout the cycle, emphasis is placed on the control of ecological and pathogenic risks using a series of quality indices associated with bioassays and molecular biological analyses, as well as risk assessments focusing on protecting the environment and human health. Together with theoretical and technological discussions, a real case of a district water system for maximizing water circulation and reuse by means of a sophisticated water cycle is presented. This book introduces readers to essential new concepts and practices and illustrates the future perspectives offered by a new paradigm for design and safety control in the context of wastewater reuse systems.

New Insights On Vitamin C And Cancer

Author: Michael J. Gonzalez
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493918907
Size: 75.46 MB
Format: PDF
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Research on vitamin C and its effects on cancer is growing in popularity around the world as positive research continues to accumulate building a stronger case for its effectiveness. This concise SpringerBrief on Vitamin C and Cancer presents the latest findings on how vitamin C induces apoptosis. A high concentration of vitamin C allows for ascorbate to generate hydrogen peroxide in tissue that can selectively kill cancer cells. Research has confirmed that high-dose vitamin C is cytotoxic to a wide variety of cancer cell lines, and that it also boosts the anti-cancer activity of several common chemotherapy drugs. Vitamin C also does more than just kill cancer cells. It boosts immunity by stimulating collagen formation to help the body wall off the tumor. It inhibits hyaluronidase, an enzyme that tumors use to metastasize and invade other organs throughout the body. This concise and up-to-date Brief is geared towards cancer researchers and scientists, as well as physicians interested in the basic science and the translational potential of vitamin C in cancer therapeutics.

Heavy Metal Stress In Plants

Author: Dharmendra K. Gupta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642384692
Size: 51.55 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Plants possess a range of potential cellular mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals and thus tolerance to metal stress. Metal toxicity causes multiple direct and indirect effects in plants that concern practically all physiological functions. The main purpose of this book is to present comprehensive and concise information on recent advances in the field of metal transport and how genetic diversity affects heavy metal transport in plants. Other key futures of the book are related to metal toxicity and detoxification mechanisms, biochemical tools for HM remediation processes, molecular mechanisms for HM detoxification, how metallomics and metalloproteomics are affected by heavy metal stress in plants, and the role of ROS metabolism in the alleviation of heavy metals. Some chapters also focus on recent developments in the field of phytoremediation. Overall the book presents in-depth information and the most essential advances in the field of heavy metal toxicity in plants in recent years.

Systems Biology Of Tumor Physiology

Author: David H. Nguyen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319256017
Size: 48.53 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This exciting SpringerBrief presents evidence for new ideas that will challenge several theories of how cancer biology is understood. Cancer biology has undergone several intellectual revolutions in the past 50 years. A mutation-centric view of cancer has given way to the tumor microenvironment view. Reductionistic studies of one gene at a time have given way to systems biology approaches that analyze the whole genome (omics) at the same time. However, this text combines the complex levels studying cancer at the molecular biology level, endocrinology level, and transcriptomics level. What researchers are now realizing is that there is a need to combine omics with physiology concepts in order to better understand cancer and this book will give insight to the merging of these two fields in order to define how cancer is studied in the future.​

Enhancing Cleanup Of Environmental Pollutants

Author: Naser A. Anjum
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319554263
Size: 24.56 MB
Format: PDF
View: 7152
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This two-volume work is an effort to provide a common platform to environmental engineers, microbiologists, chemical scientists, plant physiologists and molecular biologists working with a common aim of sustainable solutions to varied environmental contamination issues. Chapters explore biological and non-biological strategies to minimize environmental pollution. Highly readable entries attempt to close the knowledge gap between plant - microbial associations and environmental remediation. Volume 1 focuses on important concepts such as biological remediation strategies to enhance soil quality at contaminated sites; synergistic influences of tolerant plants and rhizospheric microbial strains on the remediation of pesticide contaminated soil, and the role of plant types such as hyperaccumulator plants in the cleanup of polluted soils. Readers will discover mechanisms and underlying natural inherent traits of various plants and microbes for tolerating, excluding, remediating, accumulating, or metabolizing a variety of pollutants.