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Do We Still Need Peer Review

Author: Thomas H. P. Gould
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
ISBN: 0810885751
Size: 71.60 MB
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The current peer review process is broken and unless changes are made it will soon die. Do We Still Need Peer Review? examines the evolution of peer review from the earliest attempts by the Church to evaluate scholarly works to the creation of academic peer review and finally to the current status of the process. Gould argues that without an immediate effort by scholars to institute reform, the future of peer review may cease to exist.

How To Change Minds About Our Changing Climate

Author: Seth B. Darling
Publisher: The Experiment
ISBN: 1615192247
Size: 80.59 MB
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The essential climate-debate handbook—everything you need to know about climate science to change minds Have you ever heard someone say that climate change is simply the result of natural cycles? Or that there can’t be global warming because it still gets so cold out? While the claims climate-change deniers make can seem, on their surface, quite plausible, they simply don’t hold up against the evidence: Beyond a shadow of a doubt, science proves that climate change is real and primarily human-driven. But the next time a skeptic puts you on the spot, will you know what to say to end the argument? How to Change Minds About Our Changing Climate dismantles all the most pernicious misunderstandings using the strongest explanations science has to offer. Armed with airtight arguments, you’ll never be at a loss for words again—no matter how convincing or unexpected the misconception you’re faced with. And with our planet’s future in our hands, the time to change minds is now: The sooner we can agree, once and for all, that climate change is a significant threat to our well-being, the sooner we can start to do something about it.

Climate Change

Author: A. Barrie Pittock
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317972449
Size: 23.46 MB
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It is widely accepted in the scientific community that climate change is a reality, and that changes are happening with increasing rapidity. In this second edition, leading climate researcher Barrie Pittock revisits the effects that global warming is having on our planet, in light of ever-evolving scientific research. Presenting all sides of the arguments about the science and possible remedies, Pittock examines the latest analyses of climate change, such as new and alarming observations regarding Arctic sea ice, the recently published IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, and the policies of the new Australian Government and how they affect the implementation of climate change initiatives. New material focuses on massive investments in large-scale renewables, such as the kind being taken up in California, as well as many smaller-scale activities in individual homes and businesses which are being driven by both regulatory and market mechanisms. The book includes extensive endnotes with links to ongoing and updated information, as well as some new illustrations. While the message is clear that climate change is here (and in some areas, might already be having disastrous effects), there is still hope for the future, and the ideas presented here will inspire people to take action. Climate Change: The Science, Impacts and Solutions is an important reference for students in environmental or social sciences, policy makers, and people who are genuinely concerned about the future of our environment.

Beyond Open Access Visions For Open Evaluation Of Scientific Papers By Post Publication Peer Review

Author: Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889190684
Size: 24.81 MB
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A scientific publication system needs to provide two basic services: access and evaluation. The traditional publication system restricts the access to papers by requiring payment, and it restricts the evaluation of papers by relying on just 2-4 pre-publication peer reviews and by keeping the reviews secret. As a result, the current system suffers from a lack of quality and transparency of the peer-review evaluation process, and the only immediately available indication of a new paper’s quality is the prestige of the journal it appeared in. Open access is now widely accepted as desirable and is slowly beginning to become a reality. However, the second essential element, evaluation, has received less attention. Open evaluation, an ongoing post-publication process of transparent peer review and rating of papers, promises to address the problems of the current system. However, it is unclear how exactly such a system should be designed. The evaluation system steers the attention of the scientific community and, thus, the very course of science. For better or worse, the most visible papers determine the direction of each field and guide funding and public policy decisions. Evaluation, therefore, is at the heart of the entire endeavor of science. As the number of scientific publications explodes, evaluation and selection will only gain importance. A grand challenge of our time, therefore, is to design the future system, by which we evaluate papers and decide which ones deserve broad attention. So far scientists have left the design of the evaluation process to journals and publishing companies. However, the steering mechanism of science should be designed by scientists. The cognitive, computational, and brain sciences are best prepared to take on this task, which will involve social and psychological considerations, software design, and modeling of the network of scientific papers and their interrelationships. This Research Topic in Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience collects visions for a future system of open evaluation. Because critical arguments about the current system abound, these papers will focus on constructive ideas and comprehensive designs for open evaluation systems. Design decisions include: Should the reviews and ratings be entirely transparent, or should some aspects be kept secret? Should other information, such as paper downloads be included in the evaluation? How can scientific objectivity be strengthened and political motivations weakened in the future system? Should the system include signed and authenticated reviews and ratings? Should the evaluation be an ongoing process, such that promising papers are more deeply evaluated? How can we bring science and statistics to the evaluation process (e.g. should rating averages come with error bars)? How should the evaluative information about each paper (e.g. peer ratings) be combined to prioritize the literature? Should different individuals and organizations be able to define their own evaluation formulae (e.g. weighting ratings according to different criteria)? How can we efficiently transition toward the future system? Ideally, the future system will derive its authority from a scientific literature on community-based open evaluation. We hope that these papers will provide a starting point.

Helping Doctoral Students Write

Author: Barbara Kamler
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317802136
Size: 65.73 MB
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Helping Doctoral Students Write offers a proven approach to effective doctoral writing. By treating research as writing and writing as research, the authors offer pedagogical strategies for doctoral supervisors that will assist the production of well-argued and lively dissertations. It is clear that many doctoral candidates find research writing complicated and difficult, but the advice they receive often glosses over the complexities of writing and/or locates the problem in the writer. Kamler and Thomson provide a highly effective framework for scholarly work that is located in personal, institutional and cultural contexts. The pedagogical approach developed in the book is based on the notion of writing as a social practice. This approach allows supervisors to think of doctoral writers as novices who need to learn new ways with words as they enter the discursive practices of scholarly communities. This involves learning sophisticated writing practices with specific sets of conventions and textual characteristics. The authors offer supervisors practical advice on helping with commonly encountered writing tasks such as the proposal, the journal abstract, the literature review and constructing the dissertation argument. The first edition of this book has helped many academics and thousands of research students produce better written material. Now fully updated the second edition includes: Examples from a broader range of academic disciplines A new chapter on writing from the thesis for peer reviewed journals More advice on reading and note taking, performance and conferences, Further information on developing a personal academic writing style, and Advice on the use of social media (blogs, tweets and wikis) to create trans-disciplinary and trans-national networks and conversations. Their discussion of the complexities of forming a scholarly identity is illustrated throughout by stories and writings of actual doctoral students. In conclusion, they present a persuasive and proven argument that universities must move away from simply auditing supervision to supporting the development of scholarly research communities. Any supervisor keen to help their students develop as academics will find the ideas and practical solutions presented in this book fascinating and insightful reading.

Virtual Peer Review

Author: Lee-Ann Kastman Breuch
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 0791485242
Size: 76.43 MB
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Offers a thorough look at peer review in virtual environments.

Open Access And The Humanities

Author: Martin Paul Eve
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107097894
Size: 42.38 MB
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Provides a full account of the changes in scholarly communication in the digital age. This title is also available as open access via Cambridge Books Online.

Climate Change Denial

Author: Haydn Washington
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136530045
Size: 18.87 MB
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Humans have always used denial. When we are afraid, guilty, confused, or when something interferes with our self-image, we tend to deny it. Yet denial is a delusion. When it impacts on the health of oneself, or society, or the world it becomes a pathology. Climate change denial is such a case. Paradoxically, as the climate science has become more certain, denial about the issue has increased. The paradox lies in the denial. There is a denial industry funded by the fossil fuel companies that literally denies the science, and seeks to confuse the public. There is denial within governments, where spin-doctors use 'weasel words' to pretend they are taking action. However there is also denial within most of us, the citizenry. We let denial prosper and we resist the science. It also explains the social science behind denial. It contains a detailed examination of the principal climate change denial arguments, from attacks on the integrity of scientists, to impossible expectations of proof and certainty to the cherry picking of data. Climate change can be solved - but only when we cease to deny that it exists. This book shows how we can break through denial, accept reality, and thus solve the climate crisis. It will engage scientists, university students, climate change activists as well as the general public seeking to roll back denial and act.

Everything Under The Sun

Author: David Suzuki
Publisher: Greystone Books
ISBN: 1553659961
Size: 29.94 MB
Format: PDF
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In this compilation of David Suzuki's latest thoughts and writings, the renowned scientist, author, and broadcaster explores the myriad environmental challenges the world faces and their interconnected causes. In doing so, Suzuki shows that understanding the causes—and recognizing that everything in nature, including us, is interconnected—is crucial to restoring hope for a better future. The solutions are there, he argues; we just need the will to act together to bring about change. Everything Under the Sun delves into such provocative topics as the difference between human hunters and other predators, the lessons we must learn from the devastating earthquake and tsunami in Japan and the subsequent meltdown of the nuclear reactors, and our dependence on the sun for all of our food and energy—indeed for our very lives. Suzuki also considers the many positive steps people are making today. And he doesn't shy away from controversial opinion, especially when it comes to taking on those who stand in the way of resolving serious issues like climate change. Underpinning it all is the recognition that we are blessed to live on a planet that gives us everything we require to live, under a sun that gives us the energy we need to produce food and transport and modern conveniences. But we must protect what we have if we want to survive and prosper.