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Earthquakes And Their Impact On Society

Author: Sebastiano D'Amico
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319217534
Size: 50.56 MB
Format: PDF
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This book provides an integrated approach to the assessment of seismic hazards. The reduction of losses expected by future earthquakes is probably the most important contribution of seismology to society. Large earthquakes occurred in densely populated areas highlight the dramatic inadequacy of a massive portion of the buildings demonstrating the high risks of modern industrial societies. Building earthquake-resistant structures and retrofitting old buildings on a national scale can be extremely expensive and can represent an economic challenge even for developed western countries. Earthquakes can cause also several psychological problems due to the fact that such kind of disasters will result in casualties, collapsing of houses, strategic buildings and facilities and deeply affect a community. Moreover in our society it is necessary to properly plan emergency responses and rescues taking into account any possible secondary effect in order to avoid more casualties.

The Economic Consequences Of A Catastrophic Earthquake

Author: Committee on Earthquake Engineering
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309046394
Size: 49.29 MB
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This book presents the proceedings of an August 1990 forum held at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. Topics covered include the current and potential roles of the private sector and the various levels of government before, during, and after an earthquake occurs, and alternative strategies that could be implemented to reduce the economic impacts, with emphasis placed on the role of the insurance industry.

Volcanoes In Human History

Author: Jelle Zeilinga de Boer
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400842859
Size: 43.26 MB
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When the volcano Tambora erupted in Indonesia in 1815, as many as 100,000 people perished as a result of the blast and an ensuing famine caused by the destruction of rice fields on Sumbawa and neighboring islands. Gases and dust particles ejected into the atmosphere changed weather patterns around the world, resulting in the infamous ''year without a summer'' in North America, food riots in Europe, and a widespread cholera epidemic. And the gloomy weather inspired Mary Shelley to write the gothic novel Frankenstein. This book tells the story of nine such epic volcanic events, explaining the related geology for the general reader and exploring the myriad ways in which the earth's volcanism has affected human history. Zeilinga de Boer and Sanders describe in depth how volcanic activity has had long-lasting effects on societies, cultures, and the environment. After introducing the origins and mechanisms of volcanism, the authors draw on ancient as well as modern accounts--from folklore to poetry and from philosophy to literature. Beginning with the Bronze Age eruption that caused the demise of Minoan Crete, the book tells the human and geological stories of eruptions of such volcanoes as Vesuvius, Krakatau, Mount Pelée, and Tristan da Cunha. Along the way, it shows how volcanism shaped religion in Hawaii, permeated Icelandic mythology and literature, caused widespread population migrations, and spurred scientific discovery. From the prodigious eruption of Thera more than 3,600 years ago to the relative burp of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the results of volcanism attest to the enduring connections between geology and human destiny. Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.

Impacts And Insights Of The Gorkha Earthquake

Author: Dipendra Gautam
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128128097
Size: 40.44 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Impacts and Insights of Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal offers a practical perspective on disaster risk management using lessons learned and considerations from the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal, which was the worst disaster to hit Nepal since the 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake. Using a holistic approach to examine seismicity, risk perception and intervention, the book serves as a detailed case study to improve disaster resilience globally, including social, technical, governmental and institutional risk perception, as well as scientific understanding of earthquake disasters. Covering the details of the Gorkha earthquake, including damage mapping and recovery tactics, the book offers valuable insights into ways forward for seismologists, earthquake researchers and engineers and policy-makers. Includes the latest status of seismic risk, risk perception, to-date interventions and historical scenarios in Nepal Examines details of Gorkha earthquake, including geo-seismicity, damage statistics, casualties, effect on cultural heritage, gender-risk mechanics, case studies of social institutions, urban-risk mechanics, rural-risk mechanics, resilience dimensions, social institutions in risk management, stories of resilience and failures and a critical review of efficacy of interventions in risk mitigation Offers future insights and ways forward in terms of risk reduction studies, socio-cultural dimensions of risk management, scientific intervention and policy making, implementation of existing frameworks and endorsement of resilient practices for Nepal Includes damage mapping in all affected areas

Quakeland

Author: Kathryn Miles
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 0698411463
Size: 37.91 MB
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A journey around the United States in search of the truth about the threat of earthquakes leads to spine-tingling discoveries, unnerving experts, and ultimately the kind of preparations that will actually help guide us through disasters. It’s a road trip full of surprises. Earthquakes. You need to worry about them only if you’re in San Francisco, right? Wrong. We have been making enormous changes to subterranean America, and Mother Earth, as always, has been making some of her own. . . . The consequences for our real estate, our civil engineering, and our communities will be huge because they will include earthquakes most of us do not expect and cannot imagine—at least not without reading Quakeland. Kathryn Miles descends into mines in the Northwest, dissects Mississippi levee engineering studies, uncovers the horrific risks of an earthquake in the Northeast, and interviews the seismologists, structual engineers, and emergency managers around the country who are addressing this ground shaking threat. As Miles relates, the era of human-induced earthquakes began in 1962 in Colorado after millions of gallons of chemical-weapon waste was pumped underground in the Rockies. More than 1,500 quakes over the following seven years resulted. The Department of Energy plans to dump spent nuclear rods in the same way. Evidence of fracking’s seismological impact continues to mount. . . . Humans as well as fault lines built our “quakeland”. What will happen when Memphis, home of FedEx's 1.5-million-packages-a-day hub, goes offline as a result of an earthquake along the unstable Reelfoot Fault? FEMA has estimated that a modest 7.0 magnitude quake (twenty of these happen per year around the world) along the Wasatch Fault under Salt Lake City would put a $33 billion dent in our economy. When the Fukushima reactor melted down, tens of thousands were displaced. If New York’s Indian Point nuclear power plant blows, ten million people will be displaced. How would that evacuation even begin? Kathryn Miles’ tour of our land is as fascinating and frightening as it is irresistibly compelling.

Fault Lines

Author: Giacomo Parrinello
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1782389512
Size: 56.67 MB
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Earth's fractured geology is visible in its fault lines. It is along these lines that earthquakes occur, sometimes with disastrous effects. These disturbances can significantly influence urban development, as seen in the aftermath of two earthquakes in Messina, Italy, in 1908 and in the Belice Valley, Sicily, in 1968. Following the history of these places before and after their destruction, this book explores plans and developments that preceded the disasters and the urbanism that emerged from the ruins. These stories explore fault lines between "rural" and "urban," "backwardness" and "development," and "before" and "after," shedding light on the role of environmental forces in the history of human habitats.

Moment Tensor Solutions

Author: Sebastiano D'Amico
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319773593
Size: 12.35 MB
Format: PDF
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This book first focuses on the explanation of the theory about focal mechanisms and moment tensor solutions and their role in the modern seismology. The second part of the book compiles several state-of-the-art case studies in different seismotectonic settings of the planet.The assessment of seismic hazard and the reduction of losses due to future earthquakes is probably the most important contribution of seismology to society. In this regard, the understanding of reliable determination seismic source and of its uncertainty can play a key role in contributing to geodynamic investigation, seismic hazard assessment and earthquake studies. In the last two decades, the use of waveforms recorded at local-to-regional distances has increased considerably. Waveform modeling has been used also to estimate faulting parameters of small-to-moderate sized earthquakes.

The Great Quake

Author: Henry Fountain
Publisher: Crown Publishing Group (NY)
ISBN: 1101904062
Size: 75.49 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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"In the tradition of Erik Larson's Isaac's Storm, a riveting narrative about the biggest earthquake in recorded history in North America--the 1964 Alaskan earthquake that demolished the city of Valdez and obliterated the coastal village of Chenega--and the scientist sent to look for geological clues to explain the dynamics of earthquakes, who helped to confirm the then controversial theory of plate tectonics. On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., the biggest earthquake ever recorded in North America--and the second biggest ever in the world, measuring 9.2 on the Richter scale--struck Alaska, devastating coastal towns and villages and killing more than 130 people in what was then a relatively sparsely populated region. In a riveting tale about the almost unimaginable brute force of nature, New York Times science journalist Henry Fountain, in his first trade book, re-creates the lives of the villagers and townspeople living in Chenega, Anchorage, and Valdez; describes the sheer beauty of the geology of the region, with its towering peaks and 20-mile-long glaciers; and reveals the impact of the quake on the towns, the buildings, and the lives of the inhabitants. George Plafker, a geologist for the U.S. Geological Survey with years of experience scouring the Alaskan wilderness, is asked to investigate the Prince William Sound region in the aftermath of the quake, to better understand its origins. His work confirmed the then controversial theory of plate tectonics that explained how and why such deadly quakes occur, and how we can plan for the next one"--

Earthquake Hazard Risk And Disasters

Author: Max Wyss
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123964725
Size: 68.53 MB
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Earthquake Hazard, Risk, and Disasters presents the latest scientific developments and reviews of research addressing seismic hazard and seismic risk, including causality rates, impacts on society, preparedness, insurance and mitigation. The current controversies in seismic hazard assessment and earthquake prediction are addressed from different points of view. Basic tools for understanding the seismic risk and to reduce it, like paleoseismology, remote sensing, and engineering are discussed. Contains contributions from expert seismologists, geologists, engineers and geophysicists selected by a world-renowned editorial board Presents the latest research on seismic hazard and risk assessment, economic impacts, fatality rates, and earthquake preparedness and mitigation Includes numerous illustrations, maps, diagrams and tables addressing earthquake risk reduction Features new insights and reviews of earthquake prediction, forecasting and early warning, as well as basic tools to deal with earthquake risk

Cascadia S Fault

Author: Jerry Thompson
Publisher: Counterpoint Press
ISBN: 1619020866
Size: 39.35 MB
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There is a crack in the earth’s crust that runs roughly 31 miles offshore, approximately 683 miles from Northern California up through Vancouver Island off the coast of British Columbia. The Cascadia Subduction Zone has generated massive earthquakes over and over again throughout geologic time—at least thirty-six major events in the last 10,000 years. This fault generates a monster earthquake about every 500 years. And the monster is due to return at any time. It could happen 200 years from now, or it could be tonight. The Cascadia Subduction Zone is virtually identical to the offshore fault that wrecked Sumatra in 2004. It will generate the same earthquake we saw in Sumatra, at magnitude nine or higher, sending crippling shockwaves across a far wider area than any California quake. Slamming into Sacramento, Portland, Seattle, Victoria, and Vancouver, it will send tidal waves to the shores of Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, damaging the economies of the Pacific Rim countries and their trading partners for years to come. In light of recent massive quakes in Haiti, Chile, and Mexico, Cascadia’s Fault not only tells the story of this potentially devastating earthquake and the tsunamis it will spawn, it also warns us about an impending crisis almost unprecedented in modern history.