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Ecological Basis Of Agroforestry

Author: Daizy Rani Batish
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420043365
Size: 50.25 MB
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Faced with the growing problems of climate change, ecosystem degradation, declining agricultural productivity, and uncertain food security, modern agricultural scientists look for potential relief in an ancient practice. Agroforestry, if properly designed, can mitigate greenhouse effects, maintain ecosystem health and biodiversity, provide food security, and reduce poverty. Poorly implemented agroforestry, however, can not only exacerbate existing problems, but also contribute in its own right to the overall negative effects of our depleted and failing ecosystems. With a diminishing margin for error, a thorough understanding of the ecological processes that govern these complex systems is, therefore, crucial. Drawing on the collective expertise of world authorities, Ecological Basis of Agroforestry employs extensive use of tables and figures to demonstrate how ecologically sustainable agroecosystems can meet the challenges of enhancing crop productivity, soil fertility, and environmental sustainability. Divided into four sections, this comprehensive volume begins with a study of tree-crop interaction in tropical and temperate climates. Contributions cover above and below ground interactions, alley cropping, tri-trophic interactions, ecologically based pest management, and the chemistry and practical potential of chemically mediated plant interactions. The second section investigates root-mediated below ground interactions and their role in enhancing productivity, soil fertility, and sustainability. It includes an extensive study on litter dynamics and factors affecting nutrient release. Applying ecological modeling of complex agroforestry systems, section three demonstrates the use of computer-based designs to ensure profitability. The final section addresses the socio-economic aspects of agroforestry, supplying in-depth knowledge of various farming systems and discussing the technological tools that benefit society in different eco-regions around the world.

Ecosystem Services From Agriculture And Agroforestry

Author: Fabrice DeClerk
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136537600
Size: 64.68 MB
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Agricultural systems are no longer evaluated solely on the basis of the food they provide, but also on their capacity to limit impacts on the environment, such as soil conservation, water quality and biodiversity conservation, as well as their contribution to mitigating and adapting to climate change. In order to cope with these multiple service functions, they must internalize the costs and benefits of their environmental impact. Payments for ecosystem services are hoped to encourage and promote sustainable practices via financial incentives. The authors show that while the principle is straightforward, the practice is much more complicated. Whereas scenic beauty and protection of water sources provide benefits to the local population, carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation can be considered international public goods, rendering potential payment schemes more complex. Few examples exist where national or international bodies have been able to set up viable mechanisms that compensate agricultural systems for the environmental services they provide. However this book provides several examples of successful programs, and aims to transfer them to other regions of the world. The authors show that a product can be sold if it is clearly quantified, there exists a means to determine the service's values, and there is a willing buyer. The first two sections of the book present methodological issues related to the quantification and marketing of ecosystem services from agriculture, including agroforestry. The third and final section presents case studies of practical payments for ecosystem services and experiences in Central and South America, and draws some lessons learnt for effective and sustainable development of ecosystem services compensation mechanisms.

The Silvicultural Basis For Agroforestry Systems

Author: Florencia Montagnini
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420049466
Size: 73.96 MB
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During the Green Revolution in many developing countries, agroforestry systems tended to reflect modern agricultural systems by their intensive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and site modifications to fit the desired crop. Since the 1980's, agroforestry has learned from traditional indigenous systems to work more closely with the fertility of marginal lands through the use of less intensive cultivation and fallow periods. True to its title, this volume provides a silvicultural framework for thinking about the design and practice of agroforestry systems. Unlike many general agroforestry books, The Silvicultural Basis for Agroforestry Systems emphasizes research and thoughts from a forestry perspective rather than an agricultural one. Many of the examples used in this reference are based on the ecological theory of forests that concern the competition for resources of plant-plant and plant-animal mixtures. This guide also uses the knowledge gained about the temporal and spatial dynamic and productivity of forests as the basis for silvicultural applications in agroforestry systems. The Silvicultural Basis for Agroforestry Systems contains three parts:

Tropical Forest Ecology

Author: Florencia Montagnini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540237976
Size: 80.64 MB
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Importance of tropical forests. Functions of tropical forests. Economic. Forest products. Timber. Fuelwood. Non- timber forest products. Ecotourism. Environmental services. Reserve for biodiversity. Regulation of climate. Local effects. Global effects. Social. Subsistence for local populations. The need for an integrated approach to Forest conservation and management. Characteristics of tropical forests. Characteristics relevant to management and conservation. High diversity. Latitudinal gradients of species diversity. The latitude effect. Effects of elevation on species diversity. Effects of soil fertility on species diversity. Influence of stress on species diversity. Other factors influencing diversity. Theories to explain high diversity in the tropics. Benefits of high diversity. Defense against pests and diseases. Complementarity. Implications of high diversity for forest management. Reproductive ecology of tropical trees. Timing/frequency of flowering and seed production. Modes of reproduction of tropical trees. Species interactions in the tropics. Energy flow. Delineation of the tropics. Primary production. Production patterns within the tropics. Light environment of tropical forests. Availability of light. Responses of plants to light. Light distribution in the forest. Herbivory. Decomposition. Nutrient cycling. Cycling rates in the tropics. Leaching and weathering. Nutrient-conserving mechanisms. "Direct" nutrient cycling. Concentration of roots near the soil surface. Nutrient storage in wood biomass. Other nutrient-conserving mechanisms. Role of soil organic matter in nutrient conservation. Effects of disturbance on nutrient stocks in the soil. Implications for forestry. Conclusion. Classification of tropical forests. Classification based on forest structure. Classification based on forest function. Climatic classifications. Functional variation along climatic gradients. Classification based on species. Classification at the community level. Classification based on "temperament" of species. Classification based on successional stage. Forest classification based upon soil nutrient status. Implications for management. The unesco classification system. Conclusion. Deforestation in the tropics. Rates of deforestation. Causes of deforestation. Proximate causes of deforestation. Expansion of agriculture. Wood extraction. Development of infrastructure. Underlying causes of deforestation. Economic. Political and institutional factors. Technological. Cultural. Demographic. External debt and deforestation. Effects of deforestation. Environmental effects of deforestation. Social and economic effects of deforestation. Effects on indigenous peoples. Effects on traditional rural peoples. Effects on recently arrived rural peoples. Benefits and costs of deforestation at the international and national levels. International. National. Conclusion. Management of tropical forests. Introduction. Natural forest management. Sustainable forest management. Systems used in management of natural forests in tropical regions. Natural regeneration systems. Partial clearing systems. Reduced impact logging (ril). Ecological and economic feasibility of methods of management of natural tropical forests. Criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management. Certification of forest management. Obstacles to sustainable forest management. Management of secondary forests. Techniques for management of secondary forests. Management for non-timber forest products (ntfps). Is forest management compatible with conservation of biodiversity?. Effects of forest management on wildlife. Reserves. Setting priorities. Conclusion. Plantations and agroforestry systems. Introduction. Plantation forestry: alternative to supplying the world's timber demand?. Plantation productivity. Sustainability of forest plantations. Plantations of native tree species. Mixed species plantations. Plantations and the conservation of biodiversity. Plantations in the landscape. Plantations as a tool for economic development. Agroforestry. Most frequently used agroforestry systems. Functions of agroforestry systems. Restoration of degraded tropical forest ecosystems. Recovery of degraded forests. Enrichment planting of degraded and secondary forests. Rehabilitation of degraded pasture and cropland. Recovery of the soil's productive capacity. Restoration of areas invaded by aggressive vegetation. Recovery of biodiversity in degraded lands. Conclusion. Approaches for implementing ustainable management techniques. Introduction. Top-down development. Top-down conservation planning. Bottom- up development. Participatory action. A case study of participatory action research and development case i: uruani: where par failed. Case ii: porto de moz: where par succeeded. Community forestry. Globalization. Globalization and forest resources. Case study of globalization. Locally centered development and integrated natural resource management (inrm). Importance of scale in efficiency of production. Conclusion. Conclusions. Introduction. Tropical forest classification. Tropical deforestation. Management of tropical forests. Plantations and agroforestry systems. Political and economic development strategies for sustainable forest development. References. Subject index.

An Introduction To Agroforestry

Author: P. K. R. Nair
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792321347
Size: 64.74 MB
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This college-level textbook summarizes the state of current knowledge in the rapidly expanding field of agroforestry. The book, organized into 25 chapters in six sections, reviews the developments in agroforestry during the past 15 years and describes the accomplishments in the application of biophysical (plant and soil related) and socioeconomic sciences to agroforestry. Although the major focus of the book is on the tropics, where the practice and potential of agroforestry are particularly promising, the developments in temperate zone agroforestry are also discussed. This text is recommended for students, teachers, and researchers in agroforestry, farming systems, and tropical land use.

Agroforestry In Europe

Author: Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140208272X
Size: 36.60 MB
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Agroforestry has come of age during the past three decades. The age-old practice of growing trees and crops and sometimes animals in interacting combinations – that has been ignored in the single-commodity-oriented agricultural and forestry development paradigms – has been brought into the realm of modern land-use. Today agroforestry is well on its way to becoming a specialized science at a level similar to those of crop science and forestry science. To most land-use experts, however, agroforestry has a tropical connotation. They consider agroforestry as something that can and can only be identified with the tropics. That is a wrong perception. While it is true that the tropics, compared to the temperate regions, have a wider array of agroforestry systems and hold greater promise for potential agroforestry interventions, it is also true that agroforestry has several opportunities in the temperate regions too. Indeed, the role of agroforestry is now recognized in Europe as exemplified by this book, North America, and elsewhere in the temperate zone. Current interest in ecosystem management in industrialized countries strongly suggests that there is a need to embrace and apply agroforestry principles to help mitigate the environmental problems caused or exacerbated by commercial agricultural and forestry production enterprises.

Agroforestry In Sustainable Agricultural Systems

Author: Louise E. Buck
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420049473
Size: 80.78 MB
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Agroforestry in Sustainable Agricultural Systems examines the environmental and social conditions that affect the roles and performance of trees in field- and forest-based agricultural production systems. Various types of ecological settings for agroforestry are analyzed within temperate and tropical regions. The roles of soil, water, light, nutrient and pest management in mixed, annual, woody perennial and livestock systems are discussed. Important new case studies from around the world offer innovative strategies that have been used successfully in raising forests and tree products on a sustainable basis for commercial harvesting and for providing other environmental services in land conservation and watershed management.

Tropical Homegardens

Author: B.M. Kumar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402049484
Size: 56.22 MB
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‘Homegardens’ are integrated tree–crop–animal production systems, often established on small parcels of land surrounding homesteads, and primarily found in tropical environments. This multi-authored volume contains peer-reviewed chapters from the world’s leading researchers and professionals in this topic. It summarizes the current state of knowledge on homegarden systems, with a view to using this knowledge as a basis for improving both homegardens and other similar multistrata agroforestry systems.

Toward Agroforestry Design

Author: Shibu Jose
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402065729
Size: 75.18 MB
Format: PDF
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This is an important reference for anyone interested in exploring or managing the physiological and ecological processes which underlie resource allocation and plant growth in agroforestry systems. The book highlights how recent developments in agroforestry research can contribute to understanding agroforestry system function, and discusses the potential application of agroforestry in addressing a range of land use challenges in both tropical and temperate regions of the world.