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Ecological Imperialism

Author: Alfred W. Crosby
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316453960
Size: 44.52 MB
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People of European descent form the bulk of the population in most of the temperate zones of the world - North America, Australia and New Zealand. The military successes of European imperialism are easy to explain; in many cases they were a matter of firearms against spears. But as Alfred W. Crosby maintains in this highly original and fascinating book, the Europeans' displacement and replacement of the native peoples in the temperate zones was more a matter of biology than of military conquest. European organisms had certain decisive advantages over their New World and Australian counterparts. The spread of European disease, flora and fauna went hand in hand with the growth of populations. Consequently, these imperialists became proprietors of the most important agricultural lands in the world. In the second edition, Crosby revisits his now classic work and again evaluates the global historical importance of European ecological expansion.

Domestication Gone Wild

Author: Heather Anne Swanson
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822371642
Size: 61.40 MB
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The domestication of plants and animals is central to the familiar and now outdated story of civilization's emergence. Intertwined with colonialism and imperial expansion, the domestication narrative has informed and justified dominant and often destructive practices. Contending that domestication retains considerable value as an analytical tool, the contributors to Domestication Gone Wild reengage the concept by highlighting sites and forms of domestication occurring in unexpected and marginal sites, from Norwegian fjords and Philippine villages to British falconry cages and South African colonial townships. Challenging idioms of animal husbandry as human mastery and progress, the contributors push beyond the boundaries of farms, fences, and cages to explore how situated relations with animals and plants are linked to the politics of human difference—and, conversely, how politics are intertwined with plant and animal life. Ultimately, this volume promotes a novel, decolonizing concept of domestication that radically revises its Euro- and anthropocentric narrative. Contributors. Inger Anneberg, Natasha Fijn, Rune Flikke, Frida Hastrup, Marianne Elisabeth Lien, Knut G. Nustad, Sara Asu Schroer, Heather Anne Swanson, Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing, Mette Vaarst, Gro B. Ween, Jon Henrik Ziegler Remme

Global Environmental History 10 000 Bc To Ad 2000

Author: Ian G Simmons
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748629513
Size: 73.18 MB
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Courses which deal with environmental history have long lacked a comprehensive overview. I. G. Simmons has made a significant contribution with a book that looks at the long-term history of environment and humanity from 10,000 BC to AD 2000. This far-reaching text considers the global picture and recognises the contributions of many disciplines including the natural sciences, the social sciences, and increasingly, the humanities.As a starting point, this book takes the major phases of human technological evolution of the last 12,000 years and considers how these have affected the natural world. It then considers the response to conditions such as climate change, putting today's preoccupations into a long-term perspective. This is a book of history, not prophecy, and so makes no judgements on current anxieties.

Human Impact On Ancient Environments

Author: Charles L. Redman
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
ISBN: 9780816519637
Size: 25.16 MB
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Threats to biodiversity, food shortages, urban sprawl . . . lessons for environmental problems that confront us today may well be found in the past. The archaeological record contains hundreds of situations in which societies developed long-term sustainable relationships with their environmentsÑand thousands in which the relationships were destructive. Charles Redman demonstrates that much can be learned from an improved understanding of peoples who, through seemingly rational decisions, degraded their environments and threatened their own survival. By discussing archaeological case studies from around the worldÑfrom the deforestation of the Mayan lowlands to soil erosion in ancient Greece to the almost total depletion of resources on Easter IslandÑRedman reveals the long-range coevolution of culture and environment and clearly shows the impact that ancient peoples had on their world. These case studies focus on four themes: habitat transformation and animal extinctions, agricultural practices, urban growth, and the forces that accompany complex society. They show that humankind's commitment to agriculture has had cultural consequences that have conditioned our perception of the environment and reveal that societies before European contact did not necessarily live the utopian existences that have been popularly supposed. Whereas most books on this topic tend to treat human societies as mere reactors to environmental stimuli, Redman's volume shows them to be active participants in complex and evolving ecological relationships. Human Impact on Ancient Environments demonstrates how archaeological research can provide unique insights into the nature of human stewardship of the Earth and can permanently alter the way we think about humans and the environment.

Human Frontiers Environments And Disease

Author: Anthony J. McMichael
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521004947
Size: 18.42 MB
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This compelling account charts the relentless trajectory of humankind, and its changing survival and disease patterns, across place and time from when our ancient ancestors roamed the African Savannah to today's populous, industrialised, globalising world. This expansion of human frontiers - geographic, climatic, cultural and technological - has encountered frequent setbacks from disease, famine and dwindling resources. The social and environmental transformations wrought by agrarianism, industrialisation, fertility control, social modernisation, urbanisation and mass consumption have profoundly affected patterns of health and disease. Today, as life expectancies rise, the planet's ecosystems are being damaged by the combined weight of population size and intensive economic activity. Global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion and loss of biodiversity pose large-scale hazards to human health and survival. Recognising this, can we achieve a transition to sustainability? This and other profound questions underlie this chronicle of expansive human activity, social change, environmental impact and their health consequences.

Feuer Und Zivilisation

Author: Johan Goudsblom
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3658065060
Size: 72.94 MB
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Für Johan Goudsblom brachte die Entdeckung des Feuers und seiner Kontrolle in der Vorgeschichte eine radikale Umstellung der menschlichen Kultur. Dieser ersten grundlegenden ökologischen Wende folgten mit dem Ackerbau und der industriellen Revolution weitere Entwicklungsphasen im Umgang mit Feuer und deshalb mit der materiellen Umwelt und der ganzen Gesellschaft. Bis in unsere Tage ist die Kontrolle des Feuers ein integraler Bestandteil der Gesellschaften, die Menschen miteinander bilden. Die erste Auflage erschien 1995 beim Suhrkamp Verlag.

Vasco Da Gamas Erste Fahrt Nach Indien 1497 1499 Ein Augenzeugenbericht

Author: Alvaro Velho
ISBN: 9783954210497
Size: 59.88 MB
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Als Vasco da Gama am 22. Mai 1498 mit seinem Geschwader vor der indischen Stadt Calicut vor Anker ging, hatte er einen Meilenstein der Geschichte gesetzt: Er hatte auf der bis dahin langsten Seereise aller Zeiten den Seeweg von Europa nach Asien entdeckt. Dieses Ereignis bildete unter geografischen, politischen und okonomischen Gesichtspunkten eine Zasur in der Geschichte des spaten Mittelalters im Ubergang zur Fruhen Neuzeit. Die Entdeckung des Seewegs nach Indien, eine Seeverbindung zu dem Land der Gewurze und Edelsteine, war das grosse Ziel der portugiesischen Geografen, Seefahrer und Konige gewesen und garantierte Macht und Reichtum. Der Roteiro da primeira viagem de Vasco da Gama a India (Bericht von der ersten Reise Vasco da Gamas nach Indien) ist der einzigartige Augenzeugenbericht eines Teilnehmers dieser erfolgreichen Entdeckungsfahrt. Sein Verfasser berichtet von der Route der portugiesischen Schiffe, von den Widrigkeiten und Zwischenfallen der Reise, aber auch von neuen Entdeckungen und Kontakten mit den Europaern bis dahin fremden Volkern. Und als die Portugiesen die indische Hafenstadt Calicut erreichten, ging der grosste Teil des Abenteuers erst los. 2013 wurde das Dokument in die UNESCO-Memory of the World-Liste aufgenommen."

1918 Die Welt Im Fieber

Author: Laura Spinney
Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
ISBN: 3446259589
Size: 35.50 MB
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Der Erste Weltkrieg geht zu Ende, und eine weitere Katastrophe fordert viele Millionen Tote: die Spanische Grippe. Binnen weniger Wochen erkrankt ein Drittel der Weltbevölkerung. Trotzdem sind die Auswirkungen auf Gesellschaft, Politik und Kultur weitgehend unbekannt. Ob in Europa, Asien oder Afrika, an vielen Orten brachte die Grippe die Machtverhältnisse ins Wanken, womöglich beeinflusste sie die Verhandlung des Versailler Vertrags und verursachte Modernisierungsbewegungen. Anhand von Schicksalen auf der ganzen Welt öffnet Laura Spinney das Panorama dieser Epoche. Sie füllt eine klaffende Lücke in der Geschichtsschreibung und erlaubt einen völlig neuen Blick auf das Schicksalsjahr 1918.