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The Digestive Tract Of Cephalopods At The Interface Between Physiology And Ecology

Author: Giovanna Ponte
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889457168
Size: 25.24 MB
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Aristotle in the Historia animalium, (Book IV) gives one of the earliest descriptions of the anatomy of the cephalopod digestive tract, comparing it to that of other molluscs. From dissections of cuttlefish several key features of the cephalopod digestive tract were described: the beak (“teeth”) and radula (“tongue”), the passage of the oesophagus through the brain en route to the crop and stomach. The stomach is described as having spiral convolutions like a trumpet snail shell suggesting that the structure described is actually the caecum. The gut then turns anteriorly so that the anal opening is near the funnel leading a modern author to comment that they “defaecate on their heads” (Leroi, 2014). In the intervening two millennia research on the cephalopod digestive tract has been sporadic with much of the current knowledge arising from a series of studies in the 1950s to the 1970s by A.M. Bidder, E. Boucaud -Camou, R. Boucher-Rodoni and K. Mangold which established the basic mechanisms of digestion and absorption (e.g., Bidder, 1950; Boucaud-Camou et al., 1976). The last 10 years has seen a resurgence of research on the digestive tract stimulated by interest cephalopods (particularly Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis) as candidate species for aquaculture and the potential impact of climate change on cephalopod ecology. Additionally, the inclusion of cephalopods in the European Union legislation regulating scientific research has necessitated improved understanding of dietary requirements and metabolism as well as the development of methods to monitor digestive tract function to ensure optimal care and welfare in the laboratory. Prompted by this resurgence of interest in the cephalopod digestive tract and an international workshop on the topic held in November 2015 we have collected a series of papers reflecting the current state-of-the art. The seventeen papers in this book combine original research publications and reviews covering a diversity of topics that are grouped under four main themes reflecting key topics in the physiology and ecology of the cephalopod digestive tract; feeding strategies, early life stages and aquaculture, anatomy and digestive physiology, care and welfare. This book provides a timely synthesis of ongoing research into the cephalopod digestive tract which we hope will stimulate further studies into this relatively neglected aspect of cephalopod biology. References Aristotle. The History of Animals, Book IV. Translated by D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson. Bidder, A. (1950). The digestive mechanisms of the European squids Loligo vulgaris, Loligo forbesii, Alloteuthis media and Allotuethis subulata. Q. J. Microscop. Sci. 91, 1-43. Boucaud-Camou, E., Boucher, Rodoni, R., and Mangold, K (1976). Digestive absorption in Octopus vulgaris (Cephalopoda: Octopoda). J.Zool.179, 261-271. Leroi, A.M. (2014). The Lagoon-How Aristotle Invented Science. Bloomsbury Circus, London.

Ecology Virulence And Detection Of Pathogenic And Pandemic Vibrio Parahaemolyticus

Author: Pendru Raghunath
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889199126
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Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram negative, halophilic bacterium that occurs in the coastal and estuarine environments worldwide and is implicated in several cases of seafood-born gastroenteritis around the globe. However, not all strains of V. parahaemolyticus are pathogenic. Clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus most often produce either the thermostable direct haemolysin (TDH) or TDH-related haemolysin (TRH) encoded by tdh and trh genes, respectively. A pandemic clone of O3:K6 which was first detected in Kolkata (India), has been responsible for many outbreaks in Asia and the USA. With the emergence of pandemic clone of V. parahaemolyticus, this organism has assumed significance. Although most of the V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks are invariably related to seafood consumption, pathogenic strains are rarely isolated from seafood. Virulent strains producing TDH or TRH and the pandemic clone, which is responsible for most of the outbreaks (that have occurred after 1996) have been rarely isolated from seafood and other environmental samples. This could be due to the occurrence of pathogenic strains in the estuarine environment at a lower level compared to non-pathogenic strains. Another reason can be that the pathogenic stains are more sensitive to dystropic conditions in the aquatic environment and rapidly become non-culturable. Similarity in growth kinetics between virulent and non-virulent strains also made the isolation of virulent strains from the aquatic environment difficult. Several studies were done to determine the factors responsible for an increased virulence and persistance of pandemic clone. However, none of those studies were conclusive. Several researchers have proposed various genetic markers for specific detection of pandemic clone of V. parahaemolyticus. But many of those genetic markers were found to be unreliable. Recently, seven genomic islands (VPaI-1 to VPaI-7) unique to pandemic clone were identified. This Research Topic is dedicated to improve our current understanding of ecology, pathogenesis and detection of pathogenic and pandemic clone of V. parahaemolyticus, and will also strive to identify areas of future development.

Non Marine Mollusca

Author: Brian J. Smith
Publisher: Csiro
Size: 61.42 MB
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The first of 11 proposed volumes on the Australian Mollusca, this volume covers the non-marine Mollusca. It deals with the vast array (over 1000 species) of native and introduced snails, slugs, bivalves and limpets found in terrestrial, freshwater and marginal marine habitats.

Anthropogenic Impacts On The Microbial Ecology And Function Of Aquatic Environments

Author: Maurizio Labbate
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889199398
Size: 65.35 MB
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Aquatic ecosystems are currently experiencing unprecedented levels of impact from human activities including over-exploitation of resources, habitat destruction, pollution and the influence of climate change. The impacts of these activities on the microbial ecology of aquatic environments are only now beginning to be defined. One of the many implications of environmental degradation and climate change is the geographical expansion of disease- causing microbes such as those from the Vibrio genus. Elevating sea surface temperatures correlate with increasing Vibrio numbers and disease in marine animals (e.g. corals) and humans. Contamination of aquatic environments with heavy metals and other pollutants affects microbial ecology with downstream effects on biogeochemical cycles and nutrient turnover. Also of importance is the pollution of aquatic environments with antibiotics, resistance genes and the mobile genetic elements that house resistance genes from human and animal waste. Such contaminated environments act as a source of resistance genes long after an antibiotic has ceased being used in the community. Environments contaminated with mobile genetic elements that are adapted to human commensals and pathogens function to capture new resistance genes for potential reintroduction back into clinical environments. This research topic encompasses these diverse topics and describes the affect(s) of human activity on the microbial ecology and function in aquatic environments and, describes methods of restoration and for modelling disturbances.

Cephalopods Of Australia And Sub Antarctic Territories

Author: Amanda Reid
ISBN: 1486303943
Size: 33.59 MB
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Australian waters contain the highest diversity of cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish and octopus) found anywhere in the world. They are highly significant ecologically, both as top-level predators and as prey for numerous vertebrates, including fishes, seals, cetaceans and seabirds. Cephalopods of Australia and Sub-Antarctic Territories is a comprehensive guide covering 226 species, which represent over a quarter of the world’s cephalopod fauna. With an emphasis on identification, this book includes keys, species descriptions, full-colour illustrations and distribution maps, as well as a summary of the biology and behaviour of cephalopods and fisheries information. This is an invaluable tool for researchers and fisheries experts as well as amateur naturalists, fishers and divers.

Ecological Indicators

Author: Daniel H. McKenzie
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1461546591
Size: 64.69 MB
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Today environmental problems of unprecedented magnitude confront planet earth. The sobering fact is that a whole range of human activities is affecting our global environment as profoundly as the billions of years of evolution that preceded our tenure on Earth. The pressure on vital natural resources in the developing world and elsewhere is intense, and the destruction of tropical forests, wildlife habitat, and other irreplaceable resources, is alarming. Climate change, ozone depletion, loss of genetic diversity, and marine pollution are critical global environmental concerns. Their cumulative impact threatens to destroy the planet's natural resources. The need to address this situation is urgent. More than at any previous moment in history, nature and ecological systems are in human hands, dependent on human efforts. The earth is an interconnected and interdependent global ecosystem, and change in one part of the system often causes unexpected change in other parts. Atmospheric, oceanic, wetland, terrestrial and other ecological systems have a finite capacity to absorb the environmental degradation caused by human behavior. The need for an environmentally sound, sustainable economy to ease this degradation is evident and urgent. Policies designed to stimulate economic development by foregoing pollution controls both destroy the long-term economy and ravage the environment. Over the years, we have sometimes drawn artificial distinctions between the health of individuals and the health of ecosystems. But in the real world, those distinctions do not exist.

Ecology Abstracts

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Coverage: 1982- current; updated: monthly. This database covers current ecology research across a wide range of disciplines, reflecting recent advances in light of growing evidence regarding global environmental change and destruction. Major ares of subject coverage include: Algae/lichens, Animals, Annelids, Aquatic ecosystems, Arachnids, Arid zones, Birds, Brackish water, Bryophytes/pteridophytes, Coastal ecosystems, Conifers, Conservation, Control, Crustaceans, Ecosyst em studies, Fungi, Grasses, Grasslands, High altitude environments, Human ecology, Insects, Legumes, Mammals, Management, Microorganisms, Molluscs, Nematodes, Paleo-ecology, Plants, Pollution studies, Reptiles, River basins, Soil, TAiga/tundra, Terrestrial ecosystems, Vertebrates, Wetlands, Woodlands.