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Economics Of Climate Change The Contribution Of Forestry Projects

Author: Wolfram Kägi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940159600X
Size: 11.53 MB
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Climate change is one of the major global environmental problems, one that has the potential to confront us with great costs during the decades to come. Climate change is caused by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO). As z deforestation leads to CO emissions and growing forests sequester CO, forestry z z projects provide us with options to mitigate CO effects. This study analyses the z contribution Jorestry projects can make within the context of climate change. The contribution of forestry projects is here discussed on two levels. On a first level, the COz effect of individual projects is analysed. On a second level, the study asks whether the analysis of forestry projects can contribute to questions on climate change which have been discussed in the economic literature during the past two decades. While most studies on forestry projects focus on particular details, predominantly on technical issues, this study takes a rather broad perspective, drawing together different relevant aspects: the stability of international agreements is discussed, costs and benefIts of reducing GHG emissions in industrial countries are reviewed, the underlying causes of deforestation are analysed and insights from resource economics are taken into consideration. Such a wide perspectiveallows the identifIcation, discussion and appreciation of problems and opportunities associated with forestry projects in the context of climate change which are otherwise not recognised.

Law And Economics Of International Climate Change Policy

Author: R. Schwarze
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401720479
Size: 12.93 MB
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International climate change policy can be broadly divided into two periods: A first period, where a broad consensus was reached to tackle the risk of global warming in a coordinated global effort, and a second period, where this consensus was finally framed into a concrete policy. The first period started at the "Earth Summit" of Rio de Janeiro in 1992, where the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was opened for signature. The UNFCCC was subsequently signed and ratified by 174 countries, making it one of the most accepted international rd treaties ever. The second period was initiated at the 3 Conference of the Parties (COP3) to the UNFCCC in Kyoto in 1997, which produced the Kyoto Protocol (KP). Till now, eighty-four countries have signed the Kyoto Protocol, but only twelve ratified it. A major reason for this slow ratification is that most operational details of the Kyoto Protocol were not decided in Kyoto but deferred to following conferences. This deferral of the details, while probably appropriate to initially reach an agreement, is a major stepping stone for a speedy ratification of the protocol. National policy makers and their constituencies, who would ultimately bear the cost of Kyoto, are generally not prepared to ratify a treaty that could mean anything, from an unsustainable strict regime of international control of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to an "L-regime" ofloopholes, or from a pure market-based international carbon trading to a regime of huge international carbon tax funds.

Environmental And Technology Policy In Europe

Author: G.J. Schrama
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401702659
Size: 58.78 MB
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This book contains six studies on various national environmental policies and environment -oriented technology policy systems in Austria, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom, sandwiched between this introductory and a concluding chapter. These studies were conducted as part of the ENVINNO research project, "Towards an Integration of Environmental and Ecology-Oriented Technology Policy: Stimulus and Response in Environment Related Innovation Networks", which formed part of the Targeted Social and Economic Research (TSER) Programme of Directorate-General XII of the European Commission, now 1 Directorate-General for Research. We like to thank Mrs. Genevieve Zdrojewski of GD Directorate-General Research for her kind support of our research project. The project was carried out between 1998 and 2001 by research teams from the six countries. The co-ordinating institute was the Department of Environmental Economics and Management at the Vienna University of 2 Economics and Business Administration. At this place we want to mention all researchers involved in the ENVINNO project and we want to thank them all for their contributions to this book and the project and for the good time we have had performing the project and meeting each other at regular intervals in Vienna (A), Enschede (NL), Berlin (D), and Sevilla (E). Department of Environmental Economics and Management at the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration in Austria: • Univ. Prof. Dr. Uwe Schubert, • Mag. Judith Kock, • Mag. Jiirgen Mellitzer, 1 Under contract-number SOEI-CT98-110S. 2 The project website is http://www.wu-wien.ac.atiwwwu/institute/iuwIENVINNO.

Climate Change 1995 Economic And Social Dimensions Of Climate Change

Author: James P. Bruce
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521568548
Size: 14.37 MB
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Large, irreversible changes in climate may have a major effect on the economies of the world. The social costs of climate change will vary dramatically from country to country. This landmark assessment from Working Group III of the IPCC addresses the costs of climate change, both in terms of society and equity issues, and the economic burden of combating adverse climate change. The editors assess the response options, the applicability of cost-benefit analysis to climate change, and the costs faced by the many countries committed to limit greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. This exhaustive analysis will be invaluable for the international community of policy makers concerned with the consequences of climate change.

Forestry And Climate Change

Author: Peter H. Freer-Smith
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1845932943
Size: 68.52 MB
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This book contains 28 chapters grouped into six sections providing information on forests interact with the other components of the physical and natural world with the human society, and how we could manage forests globally to make the most of their contribution to mitigation of climate change along with the established objective of sustainable management to maximize the full range of economic and non-market benefits which forests provide. Topics covered include: introduction on the interaction between forests and climate change; climate change, forestry and science-policy interface; forestry options for contributing to climate change mitigation; options for adaptation due to impacts of climate change on forests; current and future policy of national and international frameworks; and implications for future forestry and related environmental and development policy.

Forests To Climate Change Mitigation

Author: Md. Danesh Miah
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642132537
Size: 59.66 MB
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Today, the effect of global climate change is clear to all. It is clearly dangerous in developing countries such as Bangladesh. The industrial revolution caused major changes in technology, socio-economy and cultures in the late 18th and early 19th century, beginning in Britain and spreading throughout the world. The technology dominated economy was mostly dependent on energy produced from fossil fuel, which still holds true today. It is well known that fossil fuel burning has increased the GHGs to the atmosphere, thus creating global warming. Among the GHGs, the concentration of CO2 has been confirmed as the largest. Terrestrial ecosystems are clearly influencing the concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases are constantly entering and leaving the atmosphere. Actively growing trees and other plants absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, combine it with water through photosynthesis and create sugars and more stable carbohydrates. Through this process, trees capture and store atmospheric CO2 in vegetation, soils and biomass products. The Kyoto Protocol, in 1997, explored a flexible mechanism, CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) where Annex I and non-Annex I parties interact for climate change mitigation. Forestry activities have been considered important in the arena of climate change as they act both as a sink and sources of carbon. The purpose of this book is to highlight the means of efficiently reducing global warming through forestry options in Bangladesh and the positive implications of CDM.

Global Environmental Change And Land Use

Author: Han Haarman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401703353
Size: 14.58 MB
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The interaction between environmental change and human activities is com plex, requiring the concepts and tools of a number of disciplines for its effective analysis. Land-use and land-cover change has only recently become a topic susceptible to scientific research, as these concepts and tools have been devel oped and made available. Rooted in a broad community concemed with global change, systematic research has begun into land-use systems at different scales and interactions, and their links with global cyc1es of water, nitrogen and carbon are being explored. Partly based on research initiated by the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air PolIution and Climate Change (NRP), this book touches upon various land-use and land-cover issues in relation to global environmental change. In addition to the biogeochemical cyc1es, land as a car rier for functions of economic activities, food and fibre production and energy production via biomass are discussed. Crucial in studying land use is human behaviour and man-environment interaction at different scales. Land-use and land-cover change is an important contrlbutor of greenhouse gasses as these activities directly interfere with the carbon, nitrogen and water cyc1es. These cyc1es are connected through numerous feedback loops. The interface of land-use and c1imate is essentially determined by the interaction of man and the environment. Man uses land primarily to produce food; a relatively small area is needed for urban development.

Climate Change Air Pollution And Global Challenges

Author:
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080983421
Size: 45.48 MB
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There are significant pressures from climate change and air pollution that forests currently face. This book aims to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest ecosystems to mitigate and adapt to climate change in a polluted environment. It reconciles process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modeling through comprehensive forest ecosystem research. Furthermore, it introduces "forest super sites for research for integrating soil, plant and atmospheric sciences and monitoring. It also provides mechanistic and policy-oriented modeling with scientifically sound risk indications regarding atmospheric changes and ecosystem services. Identifies current knowledge gaps and emerging research needs Highlights novel methodologies and integrated research concepts Assesses ecological meaning of investigations and prioritizing research need