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Ecotoxicology Ecological Risk Assessment And Multiple Stressors

Author: Gerassimos Arapis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402044763
Size: 19.93 MB
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The science of ecotoxicology and the practice of ecological risk assessment are evolving rapidly. Ecotoxicology as a subject area came into prominence in the 1960s after the publication of Rachel Carson's book on the impact of pesticides on the environment. The rise of public and scientific concern for the effects of chemical pollutants on the environment in the 1960s and 1970s led to the development of the discipline of ecotoxicology, a science that takes into account the effects of chemicals in the context of ecology. Until the early 1980s, in spite of public concern and interest among scientists, the assessment of ecological risks associated with natural or synthetic pollutants was not considered a priority issue by most government. However, as the years passed, a better understanding of the importance of ecotoxicology emerged and with it, in some countries, the progressive formalization of an ecological risk assessment process. Ecological risk assessment is a conceptual tool for organizing and analyzing data and information to evaluate the likelihood that one or more stressors are causing or will cause adverse ecological effects. Ecological risk assessment allows risk managers to consider available scientific information when selecting a course of action, in addition to other factors that may affect their decision (e. g. , social, legal, political, or economic). Ecological risk assessment includes three phases (problem formulation, analysis, and risk characterization).

Multiple Stressors A Challenge For The Future

Author: Carmel Mothersill
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402063336
Size: 13.52 MB
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Ecotoxiclogical risk from multiple stressors covers any situation where org- isms are exposed to a combination of environmental stressors. These include physical and chemical pollutants as well as other stressors such as parasites and environmental impact (e. g. , climate change or habitat loss). The combi- tion of stressors can result in increased risk to organisms (either additive or synergistic effects) or decreased effects (protective or antagonistic effects). The multiple stressor challenge is an international, multi-disciplinary problem requiring an international, multi-disciplinary approach. The c- rent approach to multiple stressors is to examine one stressor at a time and assume additivity. Little work has been done on combinations of stressors such that potential interactions can be determined. The problem is very complex. Multiple stressors pose a whole spectrum of challenges that range from basic science to regulation, policy and gove- ance. The challenges raise fundamental questions about our understanding of the basic biological response to stressors, as well as the implications of those uncertainties in environmental risk assessment and management. In addition to the great breadth, there is also great depth in the research ch- lenges, largely due to the complexity of the issues. From a basic science point of view, many of the mechanisms and processes under investigation are at the cutting edge of science — involving new paradigms such as genomic ins- bility and bystander effects.

Risk Informed Management Of European River Basins

Author: Jos Brils
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642385982
Size: 63.81 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The growing impacts of economic activities and climate change on the conditions of rivers throughout the world, require a new, integrated approach towards river basin management, an approach that can also cope with an uncertain future. In this volume, leading European scientists and representatives of major stakeholder groups present risk-informed management as this new approach, as developed in the European Commission-funded project RISKBASE. It aims to improve the ecological quality of river basins and thus to sustain the goods and services they provide for the benefit of society. Risk-informed management involves the integrated application of three key-principles: · Being well informed · Managing adaptively · Pursuing a participatory approach The authors explain and underpin these principles in detail, offer inspiring examples from practice and connect them to the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). This book is intended for scientists, consultants and practitioners concerned about river basins, world-wide, as well as the drafters and implementers of the WFD River Basin Management Plans.

Equidosimetry

Author: F. Bréchignac
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402036484
Size: 80.18 MB
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Considerable experience with radioecological and related ecological research on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems has been achieved, especially after the Chernobyl accident. The combined effects of the radiation, chemical and biological factors, after a contamination of the environment and during its remediation have shown an interactive complexity that highlights the need for equidosimetrical evaluations of the influence of the various stressors and the need for their ecological normalization. In radioecology and radiation protection, methods of radiation dosimetry are key for dose assessment. It is therefore highly desirable to develop a clear theoretical approach as well as a practical method of equidosimetry that would allow for an ecological normalization of the different stressors in unified uniform units, especially for comparison purposes.

Nanomaterials

Author: Charles Lutz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402094914
Size: 23.25 MB
Format: PDF
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Many potential questions regarding the risks associated with the development and use of wide-ranging technologies enabled through engineered nanomaterials. For example, with over 600 consumer products available globally, what information exists that describes their risk to human health and the environment? What en- neering or use controls can be deployed to minimize the potential environmental health and safety impacts of nanomaterials throughout the manufacturing and product lifecycles? How can the potential environmental and health benefits of nanotechnology be realized and maximized? The idea for this book was conceived at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on “Nanomaterials: Environmental Risks and Benefits and Emerging Consumer Products. ” This meeting – held in Algarve, Portugal, in April 2008 – started with building a foundation to harmonize risks and benefits associated with nanomaterials to develop risk management approaches and policies. More than 70 experts, from 19 countries, in the fields of risk assessment, decision-analysis, and security discussed the current state-of-knowledge with regard to nanomaterial risk and benefits. The discussion focused on the adequacy of available risk assessment tools to guide nanomaterial applications in industry and risk governance. The workshop had five primary purposes: Describe the potential benefits of nanotechnology enabled commercial products. Identify and describe what is known about environmental and human health risks of nanomaterials and approaches to assess their safety. Assess the suitability of multicriteria decision analysis for reconciling the benefits and risks of nanotechnology.

Integration Of Information For Environmental Security

Author: H. Gonca Coskun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402065744
Size: 45.48 MB
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Water management and disasters, including droughts and floods are becoming very important subjects in the international platforms. This book will provide information about high technology techniques to solve important problems using remote sensing and GIS for topics such as the environmental security, water resources management, disaster forecast and prevention and information security.

Environmental Security In Harbors And Coastal Areas

Author: Igor Linkov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402058004
Size: 25.52 MB
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Based on papers presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Management Tools for Port Security, Critical Infrastructure, and Sustainability, held in Thessaloniki, Greece, March 2005

Radiation Risk Estimates In Normal And Emergency Situations

Author: Arrigo A. Cigna
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402049560
Size: 31.75 MB
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This book follows up a 2005 International Conference in Yerevan, Armenia dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the 1935 publication of the "green paper", by N.W. Timofeeff-Ressovsky, K. Zimmer and M. Delbruck entitled "On the origin of gene mutations and gene structure". This was the starting point of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, whose proceedings are published in this book, with papers dealing directly with Timofeeff-Ressovsky’s life, and the "green pamphlet".