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Ecotoxicology Ecological Risk Assessment And Multiple Stressors

Author: Gerassimos Arapis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402044763
Size: 79.50 MB
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The science of ecotoxicology and the practice of ecological risk assessment are evolving rapidly. Ecotoxicology as a subject area came into prominence in the 1960s after the publication of Rachel Carson's book on the impact of pesticides on the environment. The rise of public and scientific concern for the effects of chemical pollutants on the environment in the 1960s and 1970s led to the development of the discipline of ecotoxicology, a science that takes into account the effects of chemicals in the context of ecology. Until the early 1980s, in spite of public concern and interest among scientists, the assessment of ecological risks associated with natural or synthetic pollutants was not considered a priority issue by most government. However, as the years passed, a better understanding of the importance of ecotoxicology emerged and with it, in some countries, the progressive formalization of an ecological risk assessment process. Ecological risk assessment is a conceptual tool for organizing and analyzing data and information to evaluate the likelihood that one or more stressors are causing or will cause adverse ecological effects. Ecological risk assessment allows risk managers to consider available scientific information when selecting a course of action, in addition to other factors that may affect their decision (e. g. , social, legal, political, or economic). Ecological risk assessment includes three phases (problem formulation, analysis, and risk characterization).

Multiple Stressors A Challenge For The Future

Author: Carmel Mothersill
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402063336
Size: 63.97 MB
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Ecotoxiclogical risk from multiple stressors covers any situation where org- isms are exposed to a combination of environmental stressors. These include physical and chemical pollutants as well as other stressors such as parasites and environmental impact (e. g. , climate change or habitat loss). The combi- tion of stressors can result in increased risk to organisms (either additive or synergistic effects) or decreased effects (protective or antagonistic effects). The multiple stressor challenge is an international, multi-disciplinary problem requiring an international, multi-disciplinary approach. The c- rent approach to multiple stressors is to examine one stressor at a time and assume additivity. Little work has been done on combinations of stressors such that potential interactions can be determined. The problem is very complex. Multiple stressors pose a whole spectrum of challenges that range from basic science to regulation, policy and gove- ance. The challenges raise fundamental questions about our understanding of the basic biological response to stressors, as well as the implications of those uncertainties in environmental risk assessment and management. In addition to the great breadth, there is also great depth in the research ch- lenges, largely due to the complexity of the issues. From a basic science point of view, many of the mechanisms and processes under investigation are at the cutting edge of science — involving new paradigms such as genomic ins- bility and bystander effects.

Risk Informed Management Of European River Basins

Author: Jos Brils
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642385982
Size: 13.87 MB
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The growing impacts of economic activities and climate change on the conditions of rivers throughout the world, require a new, integrated approach towards river basin management, an approach that can also cope with an uncertain future. In this volume, leading European scientists and representatives of major stakeholder groups present risk-informed management as this new approach, as developed in the European Commission-funded project RISKBASE. It aims to improve the ecological quality of river basins and thus to sustain the goods and services they provide for the benefit of society. Risk-informed management involves the integrated application of three key-principles: · Being well informed · Managing adaptively · Pursuing a participatory approach The authors explain and underpin these principles in detail, offer inspiring examples from practice and connect them to the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). This book is intended for scientists, consultants and practitioners concerned about river basins, world-wide, as well as the drafters and implementers of the WFD River Basin Management Plans.

Equidosimetry

Author: F. Bréchignac
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402036484
Size: 55.31 MB
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Considerable experience with radioecological and related ecological research on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems has been achieved, especially after the Chernobyl accident. The combined effects of the radiation, chemical and biological factors, after a contamination of the environment and during its remediation have shown an interactive complexity that highlights the need for equidosimetrical evaluations of the influence of the various stressors and the need for their ecological normalization. In radioecology and radiation protection, methods of radiation dosimetry are key for dose assessment. It is therefore highly desirable to develop a clear theoretical approach as well as a practical method of equidosimetry that would allow for an ecological normalization of the different stressors in unified uniform units, especially for comparison purposes.

Umweltstandards

Author: C. Streffer
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642597254
Size: 49.85 MB
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Im Rahmen dieser Studie werden aus naturwissenschaftlich-medizinischer, soziologischer, ökonomischer, juristischer und philosophischer Perspektive Notwendigkeit, Realisierbarkeit und Konsequenzen von Umweltstandards für kombinierte Expositionen untersucht. Auf Expositionen des Menschen - dabei besonders deren karzinogene sowie genotoxische Wirkungen - sowie Expositionen einer Auswahl von Pflanzen, anhand derer die pragmatisch dringlichsten Fragen beantwortet werden, ist das Hauptaugenmerk der Studie gerichtet. Auf der Grundlage einer auf Wirkungsmechanismen basierenden Kategorisierung kombinierter Expositionen werden Kriterien erarbeitet, die trotz der Komplexität der einzelnen Wirkungszusammenhänge eine Grenzwertsetzung zur Erhaltung bzw. Erreichung konkreter Umweltqualtitätsziele ermöglicht.

Faszination Meeresforschung

Author: Gotthilf Hempel
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 366249714X
Size: 38.62 MB
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In diesem Buch berichten 95 Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler über ihre Forschung im Ozean und an den Küsten. Sie führen den Leser von den eisbedeckten Polarmeeren über die Nord- und Ostsee bis zu den Seegraswiesen, tropischen Mangroven und Korallenriffen. Die Beiträge veranschaulichen die Vielfalt der Lebensgemeinschaften zwischen Strand und Tiefsee. Das Größenspektrum der Organismen reicht von Walen und Fischen über Planktonkrebse und Muscheln bis zu Kieselalgen und Bakterien. Die globalen – vom Leben im Meer bestimmten – Stoffkreisläufe werden ebenso behandelt wie die molekularbiologischen Anpassungen der Mikroorganismen, und hier sind auch die größten methodischen Fortschritte zu verzeichnen. Zu den spannenden Themen der angewandten Meeresforschung gehören die Überfischung und die nachhaltige Nutzung der Meere, die Gefährdung durch Schad- und Nährstoffeinträge, die Einschleppen fremder Organismen und die Zerstörung von Lebensräumen. Vielfältig und bereits deutlich nachweisbar sind die Einflüsse des globalen Klimawandels auf das Leben im Meer. Forschungsschiffe, Unterwasser-Roboter, Gensonden und Datenbanken, aber auch mathematische Modelle und naturnahe Experimente sind wichtige Werkzeuge der Meeresbiologen. Exkurse über die Geschichte und Struktur der meeresbiologischen Forschung in Deutschland runden die Übersicht ab. In 48 selbständigen Beiträgen fügt sich die Vielfalt moderner, meeresökologischer Forschung zu einem faszinierenden Gesamtbild zusammen. Das Buch richtet sich an Lehrende und Lernende und an alle, die sich für das Meer und seine Bewohner, für modernes Ressourcenmanagement und marinen Naturschutz interessieren.