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Eddy Covariance

Author: Marc Aubinet
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400723504
Size: 59.70 MB
Format: PDF
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This highly practical handbook is an exhaustive treatment of eddy covariance measurement that will be of keen interest to scientists who are not necessarily specialists in micrometeorology. The chapters cover measuring fluxes using eddy covariance technique, from the tower installation and system dimensioning to data collection, correction and analysis. With a state-of-the-art perspective, the authors examine the latest techniques and address the most up-to-date methods for data processing and quality control. The chapters provide answers to data treatment problems including data filtering, footprint analysis, data gap filling, uncertainty evaluation, and flux separation, among others. The authors cover the application of measurement techniques in different ecosystems such as forest, crops, grassland, wetland, lakes and rivers, and urban areas, highlighting peculiarities, specific practices and methods to be considered. The book also covers what to do when you have all your data, summarizing the objectives of a database as well as using case studies of the CarboEurope and FLUXNET databases to demonstrate the way they should be maintained and managed. Policies for data use, exchange and publication are also discussed and proposed. This one compendium is a valuable source of information on eddy covariance measurement that allows readers to make rational and relevant choices in positioning, dimensioning, installing and maintaining an eddy covariance site; collecting, treating, correcting and analyzing eddy covariance data; and scaling up eddy flux measurements to annual scale and evaluating their uncertainty.

A Brief Practical Guide To Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements

Author: George Burba
Publisher: LI-COR Biosciences
ISBN: 0615430139
Size: 63.85 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book was written to familiarize beginners with general theoretical principles, requirements, applications, and processing steps of the Eddy Covariance method. It is intended to assist in further understanding the method, and provides references such as textbooks, network guidelines and journal papers. It is also intended to help students and researchers in field deployment of instruments used with the Eddy Covariance method, and to promote its use beyond micrometeorology.

Eddy Covariance Method For Scientific Industrial Agricultural And Regulatory Applications

Author: George Burba
Publisher: LI-COR Biosciences
ISBN: 061576827X
Size: 20.48 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The “Eddy Covariance Method for Scientific, Industrial, Agricultural and Regulatory Applications: A Field Book on Measuring Ecosystem Gas Exchange and Areal Emission Rates†book has been created to familiarize the reader with the general theoretical principles, requirements, applications, and planning and processing steps of the eddy covariance method. It is intended to assist readers in furthering their understanding of the method, and provide references such as micrometeorology textbooks, networking guidelines and journal papers. In particular, it is designed to help scientific, industrial, agricultural, and regulatory research projects and monitoring programs with field deployment of the eddy covariance method in applications beyond micrometeorology.Some of the topics covered in “Eddy Covariance Method for Scientific, Industrial, Agricultural and Regulatory Applications†include:Overview of eddy covariance principlesPlanning and design of an eddy covariance experiment Implementation of an eddy covariance experiment Processing eddy covariance dataAlternative flux methodsUseful resources, training and knowledge baseExample of planning, design and implementation of a complete eddy covariance station

Micrometeorology

Author: Thomas Foken
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642254403
Size: 13.99 MB
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The book focusses on atmospheric processes, which directly affect human environments within the lowest 100–1000 meters of the atmosphere over regions of only a few kilometres in extent. The book is the translation into English of the third edition of the German book “Applied Meteorology – Micrometeorological Methods”. It presents, with selected examples, the basics of micrometeorology applied to disciplines such as biometeorology, agrometeorology, hydrometeorology, technical meteorology, environmental meteorology, and biogeosciences. The important issues discussed in this book are the transport processes and fluxes between the atmosphere and the underlying surface. Vegetated and heterogeneous surfaces are special subjects. The author covers the areas of theory, measurement techniques, experimental methods, and modelling all in ways that can be used independently in teaching, research, or practical applications.

Surface Gas Exchange Determined From An Aquatic Eddy Covariance Floating Platform

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 48.59 MB
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Abstract: We present a new approach to quantifying air‐water flux and gas transfer velocity ( k 600 ) from underwater eddy covariance (EC) of dissolved oxygen. EC fluxes were measured 35 cm below the air‐water interface using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) coupled with a fast‐responding dissolved oxygen optode probe, integrated on a floating platform. A micro‐electro‐mechanical system (MEMS)‐based inertial motion unit integrated with the ADV enabled compensation of measured velocities for platform motion and changing sensor orientation. Deployments of 16 h and 30 h were conducted under low to moderate wind conditions in Sage Lot Pond, a small estuarine embayment. We evaluate air‐sea flux parameterizations based on wind speed, current speed, and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate compared to our directly measured EC flux. Total kinetic energy was linearly correlated with EC‐determined k 600, indicative of a more direct relationship to near surface turbulence compared to wind and current speed based parameterizations, which were subject to biases attributable to directional differences in fetch and low current speed. Our observations, which encompassed a period of low turbulent energy, suggest that existing parameterizations are not well constrained for these conditions. This new aquatic EC technique is highly advantageous for the determination of air‐water exchange, especially in dynamic near‐shore and inland systems. The system presented here has the potential for wide applicability for lake, riverine, and open‐ocean air‐water exchange and the results can be extrapolated for use with a wide range of biogeochemically relevant gases.

Handbook Of Micrometeorology

Author: Xuhui Lee
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402022654
Size: 38.68 MB
Format: PDF
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The Handbook of Micrometeorology is the most up-to-date reference for micrometeorological issues and methods related to the eddy covariance technique for estimating mass and energy exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. It provides useful insight for interpreting estimates of mass and energy exchange and understanding the role of the terrestrial biosphere in global environmental change.

Carbon Budgets Of Bermudagrass Using Eddy Covariance Technique

Author: Roshani Pahari
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 71.33 MB
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Scant attention has been given to evaluate the magnitude of net carbon balance from turf despite the fact that approximately 30% of total urban area in continental United States is dominated by turfgrasses. While most of the carbon related studies in turfgrasses are focused in cool-season grasses, this study delves into carbon balance of 'Tifway' bermudagrass, the most extensively used warm-season turfgrass in Georgia. Using the highly efficient eddy-covariance method, we estimated carbon budgets of a highly managed turfgrass system in a commercial sod farm for three consecutive years. Our results show that 'Tifway' bermudagrass is a net sink of carbon, sequestering it at the rate of 4.83 ± 0.32 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Carbon fluxes from this system showed a significant dependence on average solar radiation and air temperature, while soil moisture conditions also affected the optimum rates of photosynthesis. The turfgrass system was an efficient assimilator of C during summer and fall. Sod harvest and heavy mowing had a profound effect on carbon balance of the system while light mowing had a small temporary effect.

Nitrous Oxide Flux Evaluation By Eddy Covariance

Author: Mikhail Mishurov
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 25.77 MB
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Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas with global warming potential of 298 times that of carbon dioxide in the 100-year horizon. It also a highly-reactive gas that has a damaging influence on the ozone layer. These properties of the nitrous oxide require attention to the influence of the anthropogenic activities on the production and emission into the atmosphere. In Ireland on the major sources of the nitrous oxide emission is the agricultural activity. Since the intensive use of grassland pastures requires nitrogen fertiliser application, the ecosystems exist in almost permanent state of nitrogen abundance. Such conditions make them prone to nitrous oxide production and emissions. The temporal patterns and variations of the N2O flux were the primary interest of this research. We analysed intra-annual dependency of the instantaneous flux on management and environmental conditions, inter-annual changes in the grassland undergoing afforestation; and approaches to gap-filling of the time series for the purpose of calculating the annual sums. As a result of these sub-projects a method was developed to separate peak from background emissions, it was used to analyse events preceding the peaks and this information was in turn used for finetuning of a gap-filling approach. The quantitative separation showed that the peak flux, while is a dominant component of the annual emission, depends in part on environmental conditions that are hard to manage or predict. The long-term observations of the nitrous oxide emission from the grassland undergoing afforestation showed that while significant decrease in emission over the years was not entirely surprising forest-establishment works might lead to major emission bursts. The explored gap-filling techniques introduced the simple estimates and laid the foundation for more elaborated approaches.