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Eddy Covariance

Author: Marc Aubinet
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400723512
Size: 38.82 MB
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This highly practical handbook is an exhaustive treatment of eddy covariance measurement that will be of keen interest to scientists who are not necessarily specialists in micrometeorology. The chapters cover measuring fluxes using eddy covariance technique, from the tower installation and system dimensioning to data collection, correction and analysis. With a state-of-the-art perspective, the authors examine the latest techniques and address the most up-to-date methods for data processing and quality control. The chapters provide answers to data treatment problems including data filtering, footprint analysis, data gap filling, uncertainty evaluation, and flux separation, among others. The authors cover the application of measurement techniques in different ecosystems such as forest, crops, grassland, wetland, lakes and rivers, and urban areas, highlighting peculiarities, specific practices and methods to be considered. The book also covers what to do when you have all your data, summarizing the objectives of a database as well as using case studies of the CarboEurope and FLUXNET databases to demonstrate the way they should be maintained and managed. Policies for data use, exchange and publication are also discussed and proposed. This one compendium is a valuable source of information on eddy covariance measurement that allows readers to make rational and relevant choices in positioning, dimensioning, installing and maintaining an eddy covariance site; collecting, treating, correcting and analyzing eddy covariance data; and scaling up eddy flux measurements to annual scale and evaluating their uncertainty.

Eddy Covariance Method For Scientific Industrial Agricultural And Regulatory Applications

Author: George Burba
Publisher: LI-COR Biosciences
ISBN: 061576827X
Size: 78.51 MB
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The “Eddy Covariance Method for Scientific, Industrial, Agricultural and Regulatory Applications: A Field Book on Measuring Ecosystem Gas Exchange and Areal Emission Rates†book has been created to familiarize the reader with the general theoretical principles, requirements, applications, and planning and processing steps of the eddy covariance method. It is intended to assist readers in furthering their understanding of the method, and provide references such as micrometeorology textbooks, networking guidelines and journal papers. In particular, it is designed to help scientific, industrial, agricultural, and regulatory research projects and monitoring programs with field deployment of the eddy covariance method in applications beyond micrometeorology.Some of the topics covered in “Eddy Covariance Method for Scientific, Industrial, Agricultural and Regulatory Applications†include:Overview of eddy covariance principlesPlanning and design of an eddy covariance experiment Implementation of an eddy covariance experiment Processing eddy covariance dataAlternative flux methodsUseful resources, training and knowledge baseExample of planning, design and implementation of a complete eddy covariance station

A Brief Practical Guide To Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements

Author: George Burba
Publisher: LI-COR Biosciences
ISBN: 0615430139
Size: 50.15 MB
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This book was written to familiarize beginners with general theoretical principles, requirements, applications, and processing steps of the Eddy Covariance method. It is intended to assist in further understanding the method, and provides references such as textbooks, network guidelines and journal papers. It is also intended to help students and researchers in field deployment of instruments used with the Eddy Covariance method, and to promote its use beyond micrometeorology.

Handbook Of Micrometeorology

Author: Xuhui Lee
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402022654
Size: 47.94 MB
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The Handbook of Micrometeorology is the most up-to-date reference for micrometeorological issues and methods related to the eddy covariance technique for estimating mass and energy exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. It provides useful insight for interpreting estimates of mass and energy exchange and understanding the role of the terrestrial biosphere in global environmental change.

Micrometeorology

Author: Thomas Foken
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642254403
Size: 16.20 MB
Format: PDF
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The book focusses on atmospheric processes, which directly affect human environments within the lowest 100–1000 meters of the atmosphere over regions of only a few kilometres in extent. The book is the translation into English of the third edition of the German book “Applied Meteorology – Micrometeorological Methods”. It presents, with selected examples, the basics of micrometeorology applied to disciplines such as biometeorology, agrometeorology, hydrometeorology, technical meteorology, environmental meteorology, and biogeosciences. The important issues discussed in this book are the transport processes and fluxes between the atmosphere and the underlying surface. Vegetated and heterogeneous surfaces are special subjects. The author covers the areas of theory, measurement techniques, experimental methods, and modelling all in ways that can be used independently in teaching, research, or practical applications.

An Eddy Covariance Study Of A Spruce Beetle Outbreak On Summertime Evapotranspiration And Ecosystem Co2 Exchange And Winter Sublimation Dynamics

Author: John Michael Frank
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781369720334
Size: 31.97 MB
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Water and carbon cycles are important from ecosystem to global scales because of their feedbacks with climate change and natural disturbance. In order to quantify both primary and compensating responses in an ecosystem under disturbance, an approach that observes the ecosystem in its entirety is preferred. In recent decades, the eddy covariance technique has become ubiquitous in modern ecosystem studies because its fundamental measurement scale integrates across an ecosystem. Yet, across flux networks a trend towards energy imbalance has implicated a systematic bias in these measurements that has no mechanistic explanation. This dissertation concentrates on a historical transducer shadowing correction for sonic anemometers, the fundamental instrument in eddy covariance studies, and whether the omission of it can explain these underestimated ecosystem fluxes. It then focuses on the response of water and carbon processes in a subalpine spruce-fir forest in southeastern Wyoming, USA that experienced ~80% forested basal area mortality following a spruce beetle outbreak. To evaluate an uncertainty in eddy covariance measurements, a novel experiment is devised to test the consistency to which an omnidirectional sonic anemometer can measure the three dimensions, to compare of the effect of different designs and different manufacturers to link an underestimate in vertical wind velocity to the lack of transducer shadowing correction, and to construct a Bayesian model to estimate the three dimensional shadowing correction required to fix the problem. Results show that at the ~60% of ecosystem flux sites in North American that use this equipment, their ecosystem flux measurements are probably underestimated by 8-12%. During the growing season, the change in ecosystem processes due to disturbance are explained through the physiological response of dying spruce trees and their observed mortality. Evapotranspiration declines immediately following the attack because of hydraulic failure due to the spruce beetle associated blue-stain fungi. In response, impacted spruce trees regulate their stomatal conductance and ecosystem photosynthesis declines slightly. A few years later these trees die and ecosystem photosynthesis falls by ~50%. During winter, a Bayesian analysis shows a fundamental preference for ecosystem sublimation to originate from the canopy, which in combination with the loss of canopy and limited ability to intercept fresh snowfall, has led to substantially less total sublimation because of the outbreak. Because the ecosystem’s response to disturbance can be explained through physiological processes at the organism scale, this work provides an opportunity to test hypotheses about bottom up approaches and offers new insights into hydrological and ecological models. The anemometer error investigation and Bayesian analyses provide new tools to examine ecological phenomena that are uncertain or where no standard of “truth” is available. By demonstrating an ecosystem response that can be explained by the dominate species, implementing a two source energy and canopy mass model to explain ecosystem sublimation, investigating a prevalent error in the majority of eddy covariance systems, and advancing statistical analysis from which all of these processes can be inferred, this work as a whole is applicable to nearly all terrestrial ecosystem studies.

Surface Gas Exchange Determined From An Aquatic Eddy Covariance Floating Platform

Author:
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ISBN:
Size: 55.27 MB
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Abstract: We present a new approach to quantifying air‐water flux and gas transfer velocity ( k 600 ) from underwater eddy covariance (EC) of dissolved oxygen. EC fluxes were measured 35 cm below the air‐water interface using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) coupled with a fast‐responding dissolved oxygen optode probe, integrated on a floating platform. A micro‐electro‐mechanical system (MEMS)‐based inertial motion unit integrated with the ADV enabled compensation of measured velocities for platform motion and changing sensor orientation. Deployments of 16 h and 30 h were conducted under low to moderate wind conditions in Sage Lot Pond, a small estuarine embayment. We evaluate air‐sea flux parameterizations based on wind speed, current speed, and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate compared to our directly measured EC flux. Total kinetic energy was linearly correlated with EC‐determined k 600, indicative of a more direct relationship to near surface turbulence compared to wind and current speed based parameterizations, which were subject to biases attributable to directional differences in fetch and low current speed. Our observations, which encompassed a period of low turbulent energy, suggest that existing parameterizations are not well constrained for these conditions. This new aquatic EC technique is highly advantageous for the determination of air‐water exchange, especially in dynamic near‐shore and inland systems. The system presented here has the potential for wide applicability for lake, riverine, and open‐ocean air‐water exchange and the results can be extrapolated for use with a wide range of biogeochemically relevant gases.

Carbon Budgets Of Bermudagrass Using Eddy Covariance Technique

Author: Roshani Pahari
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 21.69 MB
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Scant attention has been given to evaluate the magnitude of net carbon balance from turf despite the fact that approximately 30% of total urban area in continental United States is dominated by turfgrasses. While most of the carbon related studies in turfgrasses are focused in cool-season grasses, this study delves into carbon balance of 'Tifway' bermudagrass, the most extensively used warm-season turfgrass in Georgia. Using the highly efficient eddy-covariance method, we estimated carbon budgets of a highly managed turfgrass system in a commercial sod farm for three consecutive years. Our results show that 'Tifway' bermudagrass is a net sink of carbon, sequestering it at the rate of 4.83 ± 0.32 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Carbon fluxes from this system showed a significant dependence on average solar radiation and air temperature, while soil moisture conditions also affected the optimum rates of photosynthesis. The turfgrass system was an efficient assimilator of C during summer and fall. Sod harvest and heavy mowing had a profound effect on carbon balance of the system while light mowing had a small temporary effect.