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Education And Training In Indoor Air Sciences

Author: Nadia Boschi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401145113
Size: 14.31 MB
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Many buildings fail to perform adequately, causing illness and productivity loss among the inhabitants. The growing impact of this problem on people and property values - and the increasing litigation to which it gives rise - clearly reveals the limitations in and piecemeal character of the current education of building and health professionals in addressing the relationship between a building and its occupants. Education and Training in Indoor Air Sciences introduces examples of existing educational programs that seek to bridge the gap between health and building sciences. The contributors - selected among architects, engineers, clinicians, physicists, psychologists and policymakers - discuss the design of a core curriculum for all those holding a degree within building design, construction, operation and maintenance, investigation, and all occupational / environmental health and general practitioners. The book also examines the obstacles to such a curriculum and ways to overcome them.

Tools And Methods For Pollution Prevention

Author: Subhas K. Sikdar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401144451
Size: 14.70 MB
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Difficult ethical and political issues confront the application of scientific and technological solutions for preventing pollution from occurring. Often the questions embodying proposed solutions to known problems are ambiguous; and no singular solution can exist for all locations. Yet the common organizing principle for all solutions to environmental problems must be scientific, because only sound science can provide a rational understanding that decision-makers can use universally. The NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Tools and Methods for Pollution Prevention (October 12-14, 1998, Prague, Czech Republic) was designed to assemble experts from NATO and former socialist countries of Eastern Europe to discuss science-based tools and methods, either available or in development, that can be used to analyze environmental impacts of manufacturing processes and manufactured products. The presentations at the workshop were written up specifically for the purpose of this book, albeit after peer reviews and thorough revisions. Most of the chapters focus on specific method development for designing environmentally benign processes or products. Several chapters take a broader view and focus on such designs from an implementation perspective, and dwell on ethical conflicts, resistance to change because of inertia or inadequate infrastructure, and on the lack of resources. We placed these chapters at the beginning of the book. The volume starts with the overview by Sikdar et aI. , who describe the scope and difficulties of pollution prevention in the manufacturing sectors.

Monitoring With Lichens Monitoring Lichens

Author: Pier Luigi Nimis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401004234
Size: 75.60 MB
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A comprehensive, up-to-date review of lichens as biomonitors of air pollution (bioindication, metal and radionuclide accumulation, biomarkers), and as monitors of environmental change (including global climate change and biodiversity loss) in a wide array of terrestrial habitats. Several methods for using lichens as biomonitors are described in a special section of the book.

Sprites Elves And Intense Lightning Discharges

Author: Martin Füllekrug
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402046294
Size: 25.65 MB
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Particularly intense lightning discharges can produce transient luminous events above thunderclouds, termed sprites, elves and jets. These short lived optical emissions in the mesosphere can reach from the tops of thunderclouds up to the ionosphere; they provide direct evidence of coupling from the lower atmosphere to the upper atmosphere. Sprites are arguably the most dramatic recent discovery in solar-terrestrial physics. Shortly after the first ground based video recordings of sprites, observations on board the Space Shuttle detected sprites and elves occurring all around the world. These reports led to detailed sprite observations in North America, South America, Australia, Japan, and Europe. Subsequently, sprites were detected from other space platforms such as the International Space Station and the ROCSAT satellite. During the past 15 years, more than 200 contributions on sprites have been published in the scientific literature to document this rapidly evolving new research area.

Smart Structures

Author: Jan Holnicki-Szulc
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940114611X
Size: 79.78 MB
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Smart (intelligent) structures have been the focus of a great deal of recent research interest. In this book, leading researchers report the state of the art and discuss new ideas, results and trends in 43 contributions, covering fundamental research issues, the role of intelligent monitoring in structural identification and damage assessment, the potential of automatic control systems in achieving a desired structural behaviour, and a number of practical issues in the analysis and design of smart structures in mechanical and civil engineering applications. Audience: A multidisciplinary reference for materials scientists and engineers in such areas as mechanical, civil, aeronautical, electrical, control, and computer engineering.

Photovoltaic And Photoactive Materials

Author: Joseph M. Marshall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402008245
Size: 52.30 MB
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The primary objective of this NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was to present an up-to-date overview of various current areas of interest in the field of photovoltaic and related photoactive materials. This is a wide-ranging subject area, of significant commercial and environmental interest, and involves major contributions from the disciplines of physics, chemistry, materials, electrical and instrumentation engineering, commercial realisation etc. Therefore, we sought to adopt an inter disciplinary approach, bringing together recognised experts in the various fields while retaining a level of treatment accessible to those active in specific individual areas of research and development. The lecture programme commenced with overviews of the present relevance and historical development of the subject area, plus an introduction to various underlying physical principles of importance to the materials and devices to be addressed in later lectures. Building upon this, the ASI then progressed to more detailed aspects of the subject area. We were also fortunately able to obtain a contribution from Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot of the European Commission Directorate, describing present and future EC support for activities in this field. In addition, poster sessions were held throughout the meeting, to allow participants to present and discuss their current activities. These were supported by what proved to be very effective feedback sessions (special thanks to Martin Stutzmann), prior to which groups of participants enthusiastically met (often in the bar) to identify and agree topics of common interest.

National Parks And Protected Areas

Author: James Gordon Nelson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642609074
Size: 16.84 MB
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National parks and protected areas offer a wealth of ecological and social contributions or services to humans and life on earth. This book describes the strengths of national parks and protected areas in different parts of Europe and North America and the challenges to the full realization of their goals. It shows that they are useful not only in conserving rare species and biodiversity, but also in protecting water supply and other resources necessary to tourism and to economic and social development generally. Ideas and information on useful planning, management and decision-making arrangements are presented, and research needs are identified.

Urban Air Pollution

Author: Ivo Allegrini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642611206
Size: 38.54 MB
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This book presents the proceedings of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop which was also financially supported by the National Research Council of Italy. The Workshop was held from October 9 to 15, 1994, at the Centro Ettore Maiorana in Erice, Italy. Over 40 researchers from a wide variety of fields attended the Workshop, which brought to attention the ongoing research on various phenomena related to urban air pollution. The presence of high levels of atmospheric pollutants in the air of several urban centres of developed and developing countries causes a great concern among authorities and public opinion. Some 20% of the European population live in cities of more than 500,000 inhabitants and about 40% in cities of more than 50,000. Since exceedance of the Air Quality Guidelines has been observed to occur worldwide, a great effort has been addressed to the control of primary pollutants, but many problems related to secondary pollutants such as nitrogen containing species (nitrogen oxides, nitric and nitrous acid, ni trates) and photochemical oxidants (ozone, PAN and others) are far from being solved. The importance of atmospheric chemistry in understanding the processes occurring in urban atmospheres has been well recognised, thus there is a strong need to exchange experiences and results from urban centres in different Countries. Indeed, atmospheric pollution is very much dependent on the type of emissions which are very different according to the economic development of the urban centre under consideration.