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Einstein S Theory Of Unified Fields

Author: Marie Antoinette Tonnelat
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317698797
Size: 17.91 MB
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First published in1966, here is presented a comprehensive overview of one of the most elusive scientific speculations by the pre-eminent genius of the 20th century. The theory is viewed by some scientists with deep suspicion, by others with optimism, but all agree that it represents an extreme challenge. As the author herself affirms, this work is not intended to be a complete treatise or ‘didactic exposition’ of the theory of unified fields, but rather a tool for further study, both by students and professional physicists. Dealing with all the major areas of research which together comprise the development of a working model, the author ranges over conservation equations, variational principles, solutions of spherical symmetry, and treats a wide selection of Einstein’s own equations. The final chapter indicates problems associated with the unified field theory, in particular the energy-momentum tensor and geodesics.

Einstein

Author: Thomas Ryckman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351707892
Size: 41.17 MB
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Albert Einstein (1879–1955) was the most influential physicist of the 20th century. Less well known is that fundamental philosophical problems, such as concept formation, the role of epistemology in developing and explaining the character of physical theories, and the debate between positivism and realism, played a central role in his thought as a whole. Thomas Ryckman shows that already at the beginning of his career - at a time when the twin pillars of classical physics, Newtonian mechanics and Maxwell’s electromagnetism were known to have but limited validity - Einstein sought to advance physical theory by positing certain physical principles as secure footholds. That philosophy produced his greatest triumph, the general theory of relativity, and his greatest failure, an unwillingness to accept quantum mechanics. This book shows that Einstein’s philosophy grew from a lifelong aspiration for a unified theoretical representation encompassing all physical phenomena. It also considers how Einstein’s theories of relativity and criticisms of quantum theory shaped the course of 20th-century philosophy of science. Including a chronology, glossary, chapter summaries, and suggestions for further reading, Einstein is an ideal introduction to this iconic figure in 20th-century science and philosophy. It is essential reading for students of philosophy of science, and is also suitable for those working in related areas such as physics, history of science, or intellectual history.

Biographical Dictionary Of Twentieth Century Philosophers

Author: Stuart Brown
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9780415286053
Size: 33.93 MB
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The biographical dictionary also includes a number of general entries dealing with important schools of philosophy, such as the Vienna Circle, or currents of thought, such as vitalism. These allow the reader to set the individual biographies in the context of the philosophical history of the period. The structure of the book is alphabetical by philosopher. Each entry is identically structured for ease of access and covers: nationality; dates and place of birth and death; philosophical style or school; areas of interest; higher education; significant influences; main appointments; main publications; secondary literature; account of intellectual development and main ideas; and critical reception and impact. At the end of the book a glossary gives accounts of the schools, movements and traditions to which these philosophers belonged, and thorough indexes enable the reader to access the information in several ways: by nationality; by major areas of contribution to philosophy e.g. aesthetics; by major influences on the thinker concerned e.g. Plato, Kant, Wittgenstein.

The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions

Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226458148
Size: 26.34 MB
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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Why String Theory

Author: Joseph Conlon
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 135198781X
Size: 39.39 MB
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An Entertaining and Enlightening Guide to the Who, What, and Why of String Theory During the last 50 years, numerous physicists have tried to unravel the secrets of string theory. Yet why do these scientists work on a theory lacking experimental confirmation? Why String Theory? provides the answer, offering a highly readable and accessible panorama of the who, what, and why of this large aspect of modern theoretical physics. The author, a theoretical physics professor at the University of Oxford and a leading string theorist, explains what string theory is and where it originated. He describes how string theory fits into physics and why so many physicists and mathematicians find it appealing when working on topics from M-theory to monsters and from cosmology to superconductors.

The Principles Of Electromagnetic Theory And Of Relativity

Author: M.-A. Tonnelat
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401035504
Size: 61.21 MB
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The aim of this work is to study the principles upon which the classical and relativistic theories of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields are based. Thus, the primary object of the book is to present a simple exposition of Maxwell's theory, of General Relativity and of the link between those two concepts, namely, Special Relativity. In the nineteenth century the notion of a continuous field gradually replaced the idea of action at a distance. The electromagnetic theory that was elaborated at that time covers a very large area of Physics, since it makes possible the description of permanent phenomena, electrostatics and magnetostatics, as well as of variable phenomena. It anticipates the existence of waves, and thereby the theory of light is annexed to this vast domain. It was discovered that Maxwell's equations changed their form when they were related to reference systems associated with two observers in rectilinear uniform motion with respect to each other and each endowed with the absolute time required by classical mechanics. This was a most remarkable fact. Indeed, as soon as attempts were made to verify the results of classical kinematics by means of experiments with the propa gation of light, there arose a whole series of contradictions.

Einstein S Theory Of Relativity

Author: Max Born
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486142124
Size: 12.14 MB
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Semi-technical account includes a review of classical physics (origin of space and time measurements, Ptolemaic and Copernican astronomy, laws of motion, inertia, more) and of Einstein's theories of relativity.

Science And Anti Science

Author: Gerald James Holton
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674792982
Size: 18.55 MB
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What is good science? What goal--if any--is the proper end of scientific activity? Is there a legitimating authority that scientists mayclaim? Howserious athreat are the anti-science movements? These questions have long been debated but, as Gerald Holton points out, every era must offer its own responses. This book examines these questions not in the abstract but shows their historic roots and the answers emerging from the scientific and political controversies of this century. Employing the case-study method and the concept of scientific thematathat he has pioneered, Holton displays the broad scope of his insight into the workings of science: from the influence of Ernst Mach on twentiethcentury physicists, biologists, psychologists, and other thinkers to the rhetorical strategies used in the work of Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, and others; from the bickering between Thomas Jefferson and the U.S. Congress over the proper form of federal sponsorship of scientific research to philosophical debates since Oswald Spengier over whether our scientific knowledge will ever be "complete." In a masterful final chapter, Holton scrutinizes the "anti-science phenomenon," the increasingly common opposition to science as practiced today. He approaches this contentious issue by examining the world views and political ambitions of the proponents of science as well as those of its opponents-the critics of "establishment science" (including even those who fear that science threatens to overwhelm the individual in the postmodern world) and the adherents of "alternative science" (Creationists, New Age "healers," astrologers). Through it all runs the thread of the author's deep historical knowledge and his humanistic understanding of science in modern culture. Science and Anti-Science will be of great interest not only to scientists and scholars in the field of science studies but also to educators, policymalcers, and all those who wish to gain a fuller understanding of challenges to and doubts about the role of science in our lives today.

The Logic Of Scientific Discovery

Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134470029
Size: 19.33 MB
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Described by the philosopher A.J. Ayer as a work of 'great originality and power', this book revolutionized contemporary thinking on science and knowledge. Ideas such as the now legendary doctrine of 'falsificationism' electrified the scientific community, influencing even working scientists, as well as post-war philosophy. This astonishing work ranks alongside The Open Society and Its Enemies as one of Popper's most enduring books and contains insights and arguments that demand to be read to this day.

Physical Relativity

Author: Harvey R. Brown
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199275831
Size: 10.66 MB
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Physical Relativity explores the nature of the distinction at the heart of Einstein's 1905 formulation of his special theory of relativity: that between kinematics and dynamics. Einstein himself became increasingly uncomfortable with this distinction, and with the limitations of what he called the 'principle theory' approach inspired by the logic of thermodynamics. A handful of physicists and philosophers have over the last century likewise expressed doubts about Einstein'streatment of the relativistic behaviour of rigid bodies and clocks in motion in the kinematical part of his great paper, and suggested that the dynamical understanding of length contraction and time dilation intimated by the immediate precursors of Einstein is more fundamental. Harvey Brown both examines andextends these arguments (which support a more 'constructive' approach to relativistic effects in Einstein's terminology), after giving a careful analysis of key features of the pre-history of relativity theory. He argues furthermore that the geometrization of the theory by Minkowski in 1908 brought illumination, but not a causal explanation of relativistic effects. Finally, Brown tries to show that the dynamical interpretation of special relativity defended in the book is consistent with therole this theory must play as a limiting case of Einstein's 1915 theory of gravity: the general theory of relativity.Appearing in the centennial year of Einstein's celebrated paper on special relativity, Physical Relativity is an unusual, critical examination of the way Einstein formulated his theory. It also examines in detail certain specific historical and conceptual issues that have long given rise to debate in both special and general relativity theory, such as the conventionality of simultaneity, the principle of general covariance, and the consistency or otherwise of the special theory withquantum mechanics. Harvey Brown' s new interpretation of relativity theory will interest anyone working on these central topics in modern physics.