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The Great Degeneration

Author: Niall Ferguson
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 1101608455
Size: 14.87 MB
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A searching and provocative examination of the widespread institutional rot that threatens our collective future What causes rich countries to lose their way? Symptoms of decline are all around us today: slowing growth, crushing debts, increasing inequality, aging populations, antisocial behavior. But what exactly has gone wrong? The answer, Niall Ferguson argues in The Great Degeneration, is that our institutions—the intricate frameworks within which a society can flourish or fail—are degenerating. With characteristic verve and historical insight, Ferguson analyzes the causes of this stagnation and its profound consequences for the future of the West. The Great Degeneration is an incisive indictment of an era of negligence and complacency—and to arrest the breakdown of our civilization, Ferguson warns, will take heroic leadership and radical reform.

The Exclusive Society

Author: Professor Jock Young
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781446240724
Size: 77.29 MB
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In this major new work, which Zygmunt Bauman calls a '"tour de force" of breathtaking erudition and clarity', Jock Young charts the movement of the social fabric in the last third of the twenthieth century from an inclusive society of stability and homogeneity to an exclusive society of change and division. Jock Young, one of the foremost criminologists of our time, explores exclusion on three levels: economic exclusion from the labour market; social exclusion between people in civil society; and the ever-expanding exclusionary activities of the criminal justice system. Taking account of the massive dramatic structural and cultural changes that have beset our society and relating these to the quantum leap in crime and incivilities, Jock Young develops a major new theory based on a new citizenship and a reflexive modernity.

Handbook Of Politics

Author: Kevin T. Leicht
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387689302
Size: 60.48 MB
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Political sociology is the interdisciplinary study of power and the intersection of personality, society and politics. The field also examines how the political process is affected by major social trends as well as exploring how social policies are altered by various social forces. Political sociologists increasingly use a wide variety of relatively new quantitative and qualitative methodologies and incorporate theories and research from other social science cognate disciplines. The contributors focus on the current controversies and disagreements surrounding the use of different methodologies for the study of politics and society, and discussions of specific applications found in the widely scattered literature where substantive research in the field is published. This approach will solidly place the handbook in a market niche that is not occupied by the current volumes while also covering many of the same theoretical and historical developments that the other volumes cover. The purpose of this handbook is to summarize state-of-the-art theory, research, and methods used in the study of politics and society. This area of research encompasses a wide variety of perspectives and methods that span social science disciplines. The handbook is designed to reflect that diversity in content, method and focus. In addition, it will cover developments in the developed and underdeveloped worlds.

Veto Players

Author: George Tsebelis
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400831456
Size: 18.22 MB
Format: PDF
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Political scientists have long classified systems of government as parliamentary or presidential, two-party or multiparty, and so on. But such distinctions often fail to provide useful insights. For example, how are we to compare the United States, a presidential bicameral regime with two weak parties, to Denmark, a parliamentary unicameral regime with many strong parties? Veto Players advances an important, new understanding of how governments are structured. The real distinctions between political systems, contends George Tsebelis, are to be found in the extent to which they afford political actors veto power over policy choices. Drawing richly on game theory, he develops a scheme by which governments can thus be classified. He shows why an increase in the number of "veto players," or an increase in their ideological distance from each other, increases policy stability, impeding significant departures from the status quo. Policy stability affects a series of other key characteristics of polities, argues the author. For example, it leads to high judicial and bureaucratic independence, as well as high government instability (in parliamentary systems). The propositions derived from the theoretical framework Tsebelis develops in the first part of the book are tested in the second part with various data sets from advanced industrialized countries, as well as analysis of legislation in the European Union. Representing the first consistent and consequential theory of comparative politics, Veto Players will be welcomed by students and scholars as a defining text of the discipline. From the preface to the Italian edition: ? "Tsebelis has produced what is today the most original theory for the understanding of the dynamics of contemporary regimes. . . . This book promises to remain a lasting contribution to political analysis."--Gianfranco Pasquino, Professor of Political Science, University of Bologna

Drugs And Democracy In Rio De Janeiro

Author: Enrique Desmond Arias
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 9780807877371
Size: 15.24 MB
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Taking an ethnographic approach to understanding urban violence, Enrique Desmond Arias examines the ongoing problems of crime and police corruption that have led to widespread misery and human rights violations in many of Latin America's new democracies. Employing participant observation and interview research in three favelas (shantytowns) in Rio de Janeiro over a nine-year period, Arias closely considers the social interactions and criminal networks that are at the heart of the challenges to democratic governance in urban Brazil. Much of the violence is the result of highly organized, politically connected drug dealers feeding off of the global cocaine market. Rising crime prompts repressive police tactics, and corruption runs deep in state structures. The rich move to walled communities, and the poor are caught between the criminals and often corrupt officials. Arias argues that public policy change is not enough to stop the vicious cycle of crime and corruption. The challenge, he suggests, is to build new social networks committed to controlling violence locally. Arias also offers comparative insights that apply this analysis to other cities in Brazil and throughout Latin America.

Ungoverned Spaces

Author: Anne Clunan
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804770123
Size: 45.95 MB
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This book provides a comprehensive critique of the prevailing view of ungoverned spaces and the threat they pose to human, national and international security.

Transitional Justice In The Twenty First Century

Author: Naomi Roht-Arriaza
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139458655
Size: 22.84 MB
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Dealing with the aftermath of civil conflict or the fall of a repressive government continues to trouble countries throughout the world. Whereas much of the 1990s was occupied with debates concerning the relative merits of criminal prosecutions and truth commissions, by the end of the decade a consensus emerged that this either/or approach was inappropriate and unnecessary. A second generation of transitional justice experiences have stressed both truth and justice and recognize that a single method may inadequately serve societies rebuilding after conflict or dictatorship. Based on studies in ten countries, this book analyzes how some combine multiple institutions, others experiment with community-level initiatives that draw on traditional law and culture, whilst others combine internal actions with transnational or international ones. The authors argue that transitional justice efforts must also consider the challenges to legitimacy and local ownership emerging after external military intervention or occupation.

Feminism For Beginners

Author: Susan Alice Watkins
ISBN: 9781863734325
Size: 31.60 MB
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An account of the women's movement from its recent birth in the French Revolution to the worldwide explosion of women's liberation in the 1970s and the conservative backlash of the Reagan and Thatcher '80s. The book looks at the achievements of feminism and the challenges still confronting women.

Criminality Public Security And The Challenge To Democracy In Latin America

Author: Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies
Publisher: Helen Kellogg Institute for In
ISBN: 9780268022136
Size: 63.71 MB
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As new democratic regimes take root in Latin America, two of the most striking developments have been a dramatic rise in crime rates and increased perception of insecurity among its citizens. The contributors to this book offer a collective assessment of some of the causes for the alarming rise in criminal activity in the region. They also explore the institutional obstacles that states confront in the effort to curb criminality and build a fairer and more efficient criminal justice system; the connections between those obstacles and larger sociopolitical patterns; and the challenges that those patterns present for the consolidation of democracy in the region. The chapters offer both close studies of restricted regions in Latin America and broader examinations of the region as a whole. The contributors to this volume are prominent scholars and specialists on the issue of citizen security. They draw on the latest methodologies and theoretical approaches to examine the question of how crime and crime fighting impact the consolidation of democracy and the rule of law in the region. These studies represent a major first step towards evaluating broadly a relative dearth of hard data about the Latin American security situation, as well as identifying future research paths. This book will be important for scholars, policy makers, and students, especially in the fields of Latin American and comparative law, political science, sociology, and criminology. “The dramatic rise in reported criminality and citizen insecurity is one of the most often-mentioned yet least researched aspects of contemporary Latin America. This valuable compendium draws on recent empirical data, uneven and incomplete but nonetheless illuminating, as well as on comparative analysis, to discuss the sources and characteristics of crime in Latin America and its impact on democratization, the rule of law and institutional strength. The authors go beyond mere description and denunciation to develop better shared understanding of criminal activity and of how best to combat it. An important contribution.” —Abraham F. Lowenthal, Professor of International Relations, University of Southern California “This is an important and timely collection of essays. For too long criminology has ignored the political dimension of crime and the implications of privatizing security. This collection, bringing together political scientists, sociologists and criminologists, addresses this critical nexus face-on and offers a coherent set of explanations for the rise of crime and the new forms of security that have emerged in Latin America.” —Federico Varese, Oxford University “This volume is a solid contribution to the scholarship on crime, security, and democracy in Latin America. Although there are other collections that tackle these or similar issues, this volume offers, for the first time, a combined focus on crime, the police, prisons, and the criminal justice system. As such, it will be of tremendous significance to scholars and students interested in the analysis of crime and public security and their relevance to the challenges that Latin American democracies face.” —Carlos Aguirre, University of Oregon