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Electron Microprobe Analysis And Scanning Electron Microscopy In Geology

Author: S. J. B. Reed
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139446389
Size: 72.98 MB
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Originally published in 2005, this book covers the closely related techniques of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) specifically from a geological viewpoint. Topics discussed include: principles of electron-target interactions, electron beam instrumentation, X-ray spectrometry, general principles of SEM image formation, production of X-ray 'maps' showing elemental distributions, procedures for qualitative and quantitative X-ray analysis (both energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive), the use of both 'true' electron microprobes and SEMs fitted with X-ray spectrometers, and practical matters such as sample preparation and treatment of results. Throughout, there is an emphasis on geological aspects not mentioned in similar books aimed at a more general readership. The book avoids unnecessary technical detail in order to be easily accessible, and forms a comprehensive text on EMPA and SEM for geological postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers, as well as those working in industrial laboratories.

Electron Microprobe Analys 2nd Edition

Author: S. J. B. Reed
Publisher: CUP Archive
ISBN: 9780521599443
Size: 67.26 MB
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This 1993 book gives a comprehensive account of both experimental and theoretical aspects of electron microprobe analysis, and is an extensively updated version of the seminal first edition, published in 1975. The design and operation of the instrument, including the electron column and both wavelength- and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers, are covered in the first part of the book. Experimental procedures for qualitative and quantitative analysis, using both types of spectrometer, are then discussed. Matrix ('ZAF') corrections, as required for quantitative analysis, are treated in some detail from both theoretical and practical viewpoints. Special considerations applying to the analysis of 'light' elements (atomic number below 10) are covered in a separate chapter. The emphasis throughout is on a sound understanding of principles and the treatment is applicable equally to the electron microprobe in its 'classical' form and to scanning electron microscopes fitted with X-ray spectrometers.

Biomedical Applications Of Microprobe Analysis

Author: Peter Ingram
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080524566
Size: 77.87 MB
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Biomedical Applications of Microprobe Analysis is a combination reference/laboratory manual for the use of microprobe analysis in both clinical diagnostic and research settings. Also called microchemical microscopy, microprobe analysis uses high-energy bombardment of cells and tissue, in combination with high resolution EM or confocal microscopy to provide a profile of the ion, metal, and mineral concentrations present in a sample. This allows insight into the physiology and pathophysiology of a wide variety of cells and tissues. This book describes methods for obtaining detailed information about the identity and composition of particles too small to be seen with the naked eye and describes how this information can be useful in diagnostic and biomedical research. Up-to-date review of electron microprobe analysis Detailed descriptions of sample preparation techniques Recent technologies including confocal microscopy, infrared microspectroscopy, and laser raman spectroscopy Over 100 illustrations with numerous specific applications Contributions by world-renowned experts in the field Brief summary of highlights precedes each chapter

Microprobe Techniques In The Earth Sciences

Author: Philip J. Potts
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461520533
Size: 21.35 MB
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30% discount for members of The Mineralogical Society of Britain and Ireland This text covers the range of microanalytical techniques available for the analysis of geological samples, principally in research applications. Each chapter is written in a clear, informative style and has a tutorial element, designed to introduce each technique for the beginning and experienced researcher alike.

Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy

Author: Joseph Goldstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461344220
Size: 74.37 MB
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In the spring of 1963, a well-known research institute made a market survey to assess how many scanning electron microscopes might be sold in the United States. They predicted that three to five might be sold in the first year a commercial SEM was available, and that ten instruments would saturate the marketplace. In 1964, the Cambridge Instruments Stereoscan was introduced into the United States and, in the following decade, over 1200 scanning electron microscopes were sold in the U. S. alone, representing an investment conservatively estimated at $50,000- $100,000 each. Why were the market surveyers wrongil Perhaps because they asked the wrong persons, such as electron microscopists who were using the highly developed transmission electron microscopes of the day, with resolutions from 5-10 A. These scientists could see little application for a microscope that was useful for looking at surfaces with a resolution of only (then) about 200 A. Since that time, many scientists have learned to appreciate that information content in an image may be of more importance than resolution per se. The SEM, with its large depth of field and easily that often require little or no sample prepara interpreted images of samples tion for viewing, is capable of providing significant information about rough samples at magnifications ranging from 50 X to 100,000 X. This range overlaps considerably with the light microscope at the low end, and with the electron microscope at the high end.

Magnetic Electron Lenses

Author:
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642815162
Size: 74.63 MB
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No single volume has been entirely devoted to the properties of magnetic lenses, so far as I am aware, although of course all the numerous textbooks on electron optics devote space to them. The absence of such a volume, bringing together in formation about the theory and practical design of these lenses, is surprising, for their introduction some fifty years ago has created an entirely new family of commercial instruments, ranging from the now traditional transmission electron microscope, through the reflection and transmission scanning microscopes, to co lumns for micromachining and microlithography, not to mention the host of experi mental devices not available commercially. It therefore seemed useful to prepare an account of the various aspects of mag netic lens studies. These divide naturally into the five chapters of this book: the theoretical background, in which the optical behaviour is described and formu lae given for the various aberration coefficients; numerical methods for calculat ing the field distribution and trajectory tracing; extensive discussion of the paraxial optical properties and aberration coefficients of practical lenses, il lustrated with curves from which numerical information can be obtained; a comple mentary account of the practical, engineering aspects of lens design, including permanent magnet lenses and the various types of superconducting lenses; and final ly, an up-to-date survey of several kinds of highly unconventional magnetic lens, which may well change the appearance of future electron optical instruments very considerably after they cease to be unconventional.

Electron Probe Quantitation

Author: K.F.J. Heinrich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489926178
Size: 11.50 MB
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In 1968, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) published Special Publication 298 "Quantitative Electron Probe Microanalysis," which contained proceedings of a seminar held on the subject at NBS in the summer of 1967. This publication received wide interest that continued through the years far beyond expectations. The present volume, also the result of a gathering of international experts, in 1988, at NBS (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST), is intended to fulfill the same purpose. After years of substantial agreement on the procedures of analysis and data evaluation, several sharply differentiated approaches have developed. These are described in this publi cation with all the details required for practical application. Neither the editors nor NIST wish to endorse any single approach. Rather, we hope that their exposition will stimulate the dialogue which is a prerequisite for technical progress. Additionally, it is expected that those active in research in electron probe microanalysis will appreciate more clearly the areas in which further investigations are warranted.

Applied Mineralogy In The Mining Industry

Author: W. Petruk
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080527338
Size: 33.48 MB
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Techniques of performing applied mineralogy investigations, and applications and capabilities of recently developed instruments for measuring mineral properties are explored in this book intended for practicing applied mineralogists, students in mineralogy and metallurgy, and mineral processing engineers. The benefits of applied mineralogy are presented by using in-depth applied mineralogy studies on base metal ores, gold ores, porphyry copper ores, iron ores and industrial minerals as examples. The chapter on base metal ores includes a discussion on the effects of liberation, particle sizes and surfaces coatings of Pb, Cu, Fe, Ca and So4- on the recoveries of sphalerite, galena and chalcopyrite. The chapter on gold discusses various methods of determining the quantities of gold in different minerals, including 'invisible' gold in pyrite and arsenopyrite, so that a balance of the distribution of gold among the minerals can be calculated. This book also discusses the roles of pyrite, oxygen, moisture and bacterial (thiobacillus ferrooxidans) on reactions that produce acidic drainage from tailings piles, and summarizes currently used and proposed methods of remediation of acidic drainage.

Ore Deposit Geology

Author: John Ridley
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107244765
Size: 69.79 MB
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Mapping closely to how ore deposit geology is now taught, this textbook systematically describes and illustrates the major ore deposit types, linking this to their settings in the crust and the geological factors behind their formation. Written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students with a basic background in the geosciences, it provides a balance of practical information and coverage of the relevant geological sciences, including petrological, geochemical, hydrological and tectonic processes. Important theory is summarized without unnecessary detail and integrated with students' learning in other topics, including magmatic processes and sedimentary geology, enabling students to make links across the geosciences. Students are supported by further reading, a comprehensive glossary, and problems and review questions that test the application of theoretical approaches and encourage students to use what they have learnt. A website includes visual resources and combines with the book to provide students and instructors with a complete learning package.

A Handbook Of Silicate Rock Analysis

Author: P.J. Potts
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940153988X
Size: 42.32 MB
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without an appreciation of what happens in between. The techniques available for the chemical analysis of silicate rocks have undergone a revolution over the last 30 years. However, to use an analytical technique most effectively, No longer is the analytical balance the only instrument used it is essential to understand its analytical characteristics, in for quantitative measurement, as it was in the days of classi particular the excitation mechanism and the response of the cal gravimetric procedures. A wide variety of instrumental signal detection system. In this book, these characteristics techniques is now commonly used for silicate rock analysis, have been described within a framework of practical ana lytical aplications, especially for the routine multi-element including some that incorporate excitation sources and detec tion systems that have been developed only in the last few analysis of silicate rocks. All analytical techniques available years. These instrumental developments now permit a wide for routine silicate rock analysis are discussed, including range of trace elements to be determined on a routine basis. some more specialized procedures. Sufficient detail is In parallel with these exciting advances, users have tended included to provide practitioners of geochemistry with a firm to become more remote from the data production process. base from which to assess current performance, and in some This is, in part, an inevitable result of the widespread intro cases, future developments.