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Electron Microscopy Of Nanotubes

Author: Zhong-lin Wang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461503159
Size: 26.12 MB
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Written by prominent scientists, this book is the first to specifically address the theory, techniques, and application of electron microscopy and associated techniques for nanotube research, a topic that is impacting a variety of fields, such as nanoelectronics, flat panel display, nanodevices, and novel instrumentation.

In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies Of Carbon Nanotube Nucleation Mechanism And Carbon Nanotube Clamped Metal Atomic Chains

Author: Dai-Ming Tang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642372597
Size: 52.72 MB
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Using an in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) approach to investigate the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as well as the fabrication and properties of CNT-clamped metal atomic chains (MACs) is the focus of the research summarized in this thesis. The application of an in situ TEM approach in the above-mentioned research provides not only real-time observation but also monitored machining and structural evolvement at the atomic level. In this thesis, the author introduces a CNT tubular nano furnace that can be operated under TEM for investigation of the CNT nucleation mechanism. By studying the nucleation process of CNTs in the presence of various catalysts, including iron-based metallic catalysts and silicon oxide-based non-metallic catalysts, the physical states of the catalysts as well as the nucleation and growth process of CNTs are revealed. Based on the understanding of the nucleation mechanism, the author proposes a hetero-epitaxial growth strategy of CNTs from boron nitride, which provides a new route for the controllable growth of CNTs. In addition, the author presents an electron beam-assisted nanomachining technique and the fabrication of a CNT-clamped MAC prototype device based on this technique. The formation process of CNT-clamped Fe atomic chains (ACs) can be monitored with atomic resolution. The demonstrated quantized conductance and uninfluenced half-metallic properties of Fe ACs indicate that CNTs can be promising nanoscale electrodes or interconnectors for the linking and assembly of nano and subnano structures.

Carbon Nanotubes

Author: M. Meyyappan
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203494936
Size: 62.30 MB
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Carbon nanotubes, with their extraordinary mechanical and unique electronic properties, have garnered much attention in the past five years. With a broad range of potential applications including nanoelectronics, composites, chemical sensors, biosensors, microscopy, nanoelectromechanical systems, and many more, the scientific community is more motivated than ever to move beyond basic properties and explore the real issues associated with carbon nanotube-based applications. Taking a comprehensive look at this diverse and dynamic subject, Carbon Nanotubes: Science and Applications describes the field's various aspects, including properties, growth, and processing techniques, while focusing on individual major application areas. Well-known authors who practice the craft of carbon nanotubes on a daily basis present an overview on structures and properties, and discuss modeling and simulation efforts, growth by arc discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition. Applications become the focal point in chapters on scanning probe microscopy, carbon nanotube-based diodes and transistors, field emission, and the development of chemical and physical sensors, biosensors, and composites. Presenting up-to-date literature citations that express the current state of the science, this book fully explores the development phase of carbon nanotube-based applications. It is a valuable resource for engineers, scientists, researchers, and professionals in a wide range of disciplines whose focus remains on the power and promise of carbon nanotubes. Editor Meyya Meyyappan will receive the Pioneer Award in Nanotechnology from the IEEE Nanotechnology Council at the IEEE Nano Conference in Portland, Oregon in August, 2011

Industrial Applications Of Electron Microscopy

Author: Zhigang Li
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824745760
Size: 72.23 MB
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Providing proven strategies for solutions to research, development, and production dilemmas, this reference details the instrumentation and underlying principles for utilization of electron microscopy in the manufacturing, automotive, semiconductor, photographic film, pharmaceutical, chemical, mineral, forensic, glass, and pulp and paper industries. The book covers safety, calibration, and troubleshooting techniques, as well as methods in sample preparation and image collection, interpretation, and analysis. It includes contributions from microscopy experts based at major corporations and scientists from universities and major research centers.

Carbon Nanotubes

Author: Ado Jorio
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540728658
Size: 58.13 MB
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Building on the success of its predecessor, Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications, this second volume focuses on those areas that have grown rapidly in the past few years. Contributing authors reflect the multidisciplinary nature of the book and are all leaders in their particular areas of research. Among the many topics they cover are graphene and other carbon-like and tube-like materials, which are likely to affect and influence developments in nanotubes within the next five years. Extensive use of illustrations enables you to better understand and visualize key concepts and processes.

Progress In Transmission Electron Microscopy 2

Author: Xiao-Feng Zhang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540676812
Size: 58.51 MB
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Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is now recognized as a crucial tool in materials science. This book, authored by a team of expert Chinese and international authors, covers many aspects of modern electron microscopy, from the architecture of novel electron microscopes, advanced theories and techniques in TEM and sample preparation, to a variety of hands-on examples of TEM applications. Volume 2 illustrates the important role that TEM is playing in the development and characterization of advanced materials, including nanostructures, interfacial structures, defects, and macromolecular complexes.

Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

Author: Zhifeng Ren
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642304907
Size: 25.87 MB
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This book gives a survey of the physics and fabrication of carbon nanotubes and their applications in optics, electronics, chemistry and biotechnology. It focuses on the structural characterization of various carbon nanotubes, fabrication of vertically or parallel aligned carbon nanotubes on substrates or in composites, physical properties for their alignment, and applications of aligned carbon nanotubes in field emission, optical antennas, light transmission, solar cells, chemical devices, bio-devices, and many others. Major fabrication methods are illustrated in detail, particularly the most widely used PECVD growth technique on which various device integration schemes are based, followed by applications such as electrical interconnects, nanodiodes, optical antennas, and nanocoax solar cells, whereas current limitations and challenges are also be discussed to lay the foundation for future developments.

Carbon Nanotubes From Basic Research To Nanotechnology

Author: Valentin N. Popov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402045743
Size: 75.38 MB
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It is about 15 years that the carbon nanotubes have been discovered by Sumio Iijima in a transmission electron microscope. Since that time, these long hollow cylindrical carbon molecules have revealed being remarkable nanostructures for several aspects. They are composed of just one element, Carbon, and are easily produced by several techniques. A nanotube can bend easily but still is very robust. The nanotubes can be manipulated and contacted to external electrodes. Their diameter is in the nanometer range, whereas their length may exceed several micrometers, if not several millimeters. In diameter, the nanotubes behave like molecules with quantized energy levels, while in length, they behave like a crystal with a continuous distribution of momenta. Depending on its exact atomic structure, a single-wall nanotube –that is to say a nanotube composed of just one rolled-up graphene sheet– may be either a metal or a semiconductor. The nanotubes can carry a large electric current, they are also good thermal conductors. It is not surprising, then, that many applications have been proposed for the nanotubes. At the time of writing, one of their most promising applications is their ability to emit electrons when subjected to an external electric field. Carbon nanotubes can do so in normal vacuum conditions with a reasonable voltage threshold, which make them suitable for cold-cathode devices.

A Combined Electron Microscopy And Computational Study On Cellular Uptake And Stability Of Carbon Nanotubes

Author: Hannah Catherine Nerl
Size: 17.26 MB
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The aims of the PhD project were to understand the mechanisms of cellular uptake as well as the intracellular biostability of oxidised functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f- MWNTs). Firstly, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR TEM) imaging and 3D electron tomography were applied to study the pathways of f-MWNTs into non-phagocytic cells, and more specifically, to study the interaction between f-MWNTs and the cell membrane. After exposing epithelial cells to f-MWNTs for 24 hours, two distinct uptake processes by which NH3+ f-MWNTs can enter epithelial cells were observed. Then, the study was complemented using a combination of TEM imaging and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, to provide insight into the interaction of f-MWNTs with cell membranes and the effect of surface charge on this interaction. Secondly, the question of whether f-MWNTs can be degraded by the body's own defence mechanisms was addressed. HR TEM techniques were used to assess the graphitic structure and morphology of f-MWNTs injected into the murine brain and after exposure to human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMMs), with the aim of understanding the mechanisms underlying the degradation process. F-MWNTs were found to have a reduced biostability in the brain tissue and in the HMMs. Inside the brain tissue, the degradation occurred rapidly with signs of advanced f-MWNT degradation present after 2 days exposure. In the HMMs, f-MWNT walls were found to delaminate from individual f-MWNTs inside lysosomes after 24 hours exposure. Similar events were observed after 14 days exposure in the cell cytoplasm inside the HMMs. Furthermore, a loss of the graphitic structure was observed. By using scanning TEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM EELS) to compare the near-edge structure of the carbon K-edge prior to, and post injection, graphitic f-MWNTs could be distinguished from the graphitic debris and the amorphous cell background. The combination of HR TEM and STEM EELS techniques provided information about the individual steps, leading to the disintegration of the f-MWNTs, and the morphology of the degradation debris. In order to study the effect of the functionalisation on the biostability, the study was repeated using pristine MWNTs and HMMs. No signs of degradation of the pristine MWNTs were observed after 14 days exposure to the HMMs.