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The Extended Specimen

Author: Michael S. Webster
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351646788
Size: 58.20 MB
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The Extended Specimen highlights the research potential for ornithological specimens, and is meant to encourage ornithologists poised to initiate a renaissance in collections-based ornithological research. Contributors illustrate how collections and specimens are used in novel ways by adopting emerging new technologies and analytical techniques. Case studies use museum specimens and emerging and non-traditional types of specimens, which are developing new methods for making biological collections more accessible and "usable" for ornithological researchers. Thus, book documents the power of ornithological collections to address key research questions of global importance.

Olefin Polymerization

Author: Palanisamy Arjunan
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
ISBN: 9780841236141
Size: 76.18 MB
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Annotation A dozen papers from a symposium held in Dallas, Texas in March and April 1998. Researchers from academic and industrial sectors look at diverse aspects of a polymer that was one of the last types to be commercialized but is now the most widely used worldwide. Covering both scientific and technological areas, they report on recent developments in catalysis, polymerization, polymer design, and characterization. The specific topics include siloxy-substituted group IV metallocene catalysts, random copolymerization of propylene and styrene with homogeneous monocyclopentadienyltitanium- methylaluminoxanes catalyst, advantaged polyethylene product design, and determining trimethylaluminum and characterizing methylaluminoxanes using proton nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

Emerging Frontiers

Author: Marie Brinkman
Publisher: Paulist Press
ISBN: 9780809145409
Size: 25.72 MB
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Founded in Indian Territory in 1858, the Sisters of Charity of Leavenworth met, a century later, challenges of a new frontier in the church's call to adapt to modern circumstances and in their own awareness of deepening social and ecclesial needs. For three decades, sisters struggled with conditions that threatened unity: issues of governance, demands of professional training, diverse backgrounds, differing experience of communal life, developing theology of religious vows. Diminishing numbers coupled with need for leadership led to new institutional roles and new forms of ministry. Emerging Frontiers records the struggle and its outcome. A common past and determination to stay together marked the long search for a renewed common vision. A new century brought re-dedication to a Vincentian heritage and far-flung partnerships in the mission given by Jesus Christ to his people. Commitment to those in need, especially women and children; fidelity to the church; faithful relationship with those of means and good will, and with the earth; transition to sponsorship of institutional ministries, many now administered by lay women and men; solidarity with all who stand for justice and peace: this was the resolution of a renewed Community whose story is told here.

Emerging Frontiers Of Urban Settlement Geography

Author: Sant Bahadur Singh
Publisher: M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN: 9788185880839
Size: 48.46 MB
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Urban Settlement Geography has been consistently growing as a systematic branch of Geographical knowledge. Its scope and subject matter has been broadened, its analytical focus has been realigned and its analytical tools have been refined. The Book focusses upon multifaceted themes with regard to meaning and scope of Urban settlement Geography, spatial characteristics of urban settlements, classification, morphology urban transportation, periodic markets, urban transportation development policy and the urban Environmental problems.

The Emerging Discipline Of Quantitative Systems Pharmacology

Author: Tarek A. Leil
Publisher:
ISBN: 2889196429
Size: 15.37 MB
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In 2011, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), in collaboration with leaders from the pharmaceutical industry and the academic community, published a white paper describing the emerging discipline of Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP), and recommended the establishment of NIH-supported interdisciplinary research and training programs for QSP. QSP is still in its infancy, but has tremendous potential to change the way we approach biomedical research. QSP is really the integration of two disciplines that have been increasingly useful in biomedical research; “Systems Biology” and “Quantitative Pharmacology”. Systems Biology is the field of biomedical research that seeks to understand the relationships between genes and biologically active molecules to develop qualitative models of these systems; and Quantitative Pharmacology is the field of biomedical research that seeks to use computer aided modeling and simulation to increase our understanding of the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of drugs, and to aid in the design of pre-clinical and clinical experiments. The purpose of QSP modeling is to develop quantitative computer models of biological systems and disease processes, and the effects of drug PK and PD on those systems. QSP models allow testing of numerous potential experiments “in-silico” to eliminate those associated with a low probability of success, avoiding the potential costs of evaluating all of those failed experiments in the real world. At the same time, QSP models allow us to develop our understanding of the interaction between drugs and biological systems in a more systematic and rigorous manner. As the need to be more cost-efficient in the use of research funding increases, biomedical researchers will be required to gain the maximum insight from each experiment that is conducted. This need is even more acute in the pharmaceutical industry, where there is tremendous competition to develop innovative therapies in a highly regulated environment, combined with very high research and development (R&D) costs for bringing new drugs to market (~$1.3 billion/drug). Analogous modeling & simulation approaches have been successfully integrated into other disciplines to improve the fundamental understanding of the science and to improve the efficiency of R&D (e.g., physics, engineering, economics, etc.). The biomedical research community has been slow to integrate computer aided modeling & simulation for many reasons: including the perception that biology and pharmacology are “too complex” and “too variable” to be modeled with mathematical equations; a lack of adequate graduate training programs; and the lack of support from government agencies that fund biomedical research. However, there is an active community of researchers in the pharmaceutical industry, the academic community, and government agencies that develop QSP and quantitative systems biology models and apply them both to better characterize and predict drug pharmacology and disease processes; as well as to improve efficiency and productivity in pharmaceutical R&D.

Emerging Zoonoses Eco Epidemiology Involved Mechanisms And Public Health Implications

Author: Rubén Bueno-Marí
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889196186
Size: 56.49 MB
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Zoonoses are currently considered as one of the most important threats for public health worldwide. Zoonoses can be defined as any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate or invertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa. Approximately 75% of recently emerging infectious diseases affecting humans are diseases of animal origin; approximately 60% of all human pathogens are zoonotic. All types of potential pathogenic agents, including viruses, parasites, bacteria and fungi, can cause these zoonotic infections. From the wide range of potential vectors of zoonoses, insects are probably those of major significance due to their abundance, high plasticity and adaptability to different kinds of pathogens, high degrees of synanthropism in several groups and difficulties to apply effective programs of population control. Although ticks, flies, cockroaches, bugs and fleas are excellent insects capable to transmit viruses, parasites and bacteria, undoubtedly mosquitoes are the most important disease vectors. Mosquito borne diseases like malaria, dengue, equine encephalitis, West Nile, Mayaro or Chikungunya are zoonoses with increasing incidence in last years in tropical and temperate countries. Vertebrates can also transmit serious zoonoses, highlighting the role of some carnivorous animals in rabies dissemination or the spread of rodent borne diseases in several rural and urban areas. Moreover, the significance of other food borne zoonoses such as taeniasis, trichinellosis or toxoplasmosis may not been underestimated. According to WHO, FAO and OIE guidelines an emerging zoonotic disease can be defined as a zoonosis that is newly recognized or newly evolved, or that has occurred previously but shows an increase of incidence or expansion in geographical, host or vector range. There are many factors that can provoke or accelerate the emergence of zoonoses, such as environmental changes, habitat modifications, variations of human and animal demography, pathogens and vectors anomalous mobilization related with human practices and globalization, deterioration of the strategies of vector control or changes in pathogen genetics. To reduce public health risks from zoonoses is absolutely necessary to acquire an integrative perspective that includes the study of the complexity of interactions among humans, animals and environment in order to be able to fight against these issues of primary interest for human health. In any case, although zoonoses represent significant public health threats, many of them still remain as neglected diseases and consequently are not prioritized by some health international organisms.

Emerging Immune Functions Of Non Hematopoietic Stromal Cells

Author: Burkhard Ludewig
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889193624
Size: 41.19 MB
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The development and function of the immune system is dependent on interactions between haematopoietic cells and non-hematopoietic stromal cells. The non-hematopoietic stromal cells create the microenvironment in which the immune system operates, providing an architectural landscape for hematopoietic cell-cell interactions and molecular cues governing haematopoietic cell positioning, growth and survival. Not surprisingly, therefore, aberrant stromal cell function has recently been shown to play a key role in the development of disease pathologies associated with immune dysfunction. For example, remodelling of lymphoid tissue stroma and the development of ectopic tertiary lymphoid tissues are characteristic of many infectious and inflammatory diseases and stromal cells have a recognised role in lymphoma and tumour development and resistance to therapy. An increased understanding of the molecular basis of stromal cell differentiation and function in these varied contexts will provide new tools to promote research on stromal cell biology and immune dysfunction, and potential new targets for therapeutic intervention in diseases with a major impact on public health. The importance of stromal cells and the molecular mechanisms of stromal cell function in the regulation of immune responses have only recently been appreciated and thus represent an exciting new area in immunology.

Gamete Biology

Author: S. K. Gupta
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781904761433
Size: 51.41 MB
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In recent years, an impressive progress has been made in our understanding of the developmental processes involved in the formation of the spermatozoa and egg in various species. Interestingly, using stem cell biology, researchers have created both male and female gametes from totipotent cells. Further, progress has been made in our understanding of cellular and molecular basis of the sperm-egg interaction leading to fertilization.