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Energy Efficiency In The Cement Industry

Author: J. Sirchis
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482290405
Size: 52.62 MB
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Proceedings of a seminar organized by the CEC, Directorate-General for Energy and CIMPOR Cimentos de Portugal E.P. with the co-operation of Cembureau European Cement Association, held in Oporto, Portugal, 6-7 November 1989.

Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities For The Cement Industry

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Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 49.42 MB
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This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in this report is based on publicly-available reports, journal articles, and case studies from applications of technologies around the world.

Potential For Energy Conservation In The Cement Industry

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Size: 20.80 MB
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This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

Energy Efficiency Guide For Industry In Asia

Author:
Publisher: UNEP/Earthprint
ISBN: 9280726471
Size: 45.85 MB
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This guide has been developed for Asian companies who want to improve energy efficiency through Cleaner Production and for stakeholders who want to help them. It includes a methodology, case studies for more than 40 Asian companies in 5 industry sectors, technical information for 25 energy equipments, training materials, a contact and information database.--Publisher's description.

Energy Efficiency

Author: Great Britain: Parliament: House of Lords: Science and Technology Committee
Publisher: The Stationery Office
ISBN: 9780104007242
Size: 61.70 MB
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Energy Efficiency : 2nd report of session 2005-06, Vol. 2: Evidence

Cutting Air Pollution By Improving Energy Efficiency Of China S Cement Industry

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Abstract: In this study, the energy conservation supply curves (ECSC) combined with the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) was used to estimate the co-benefits of energy savings on CO2 and air pollutants emission for implementation co-control options of energy efficiency measures and end-of-pipe options in the china's cement industry for the period 2011-2030. Results show the cost-effective energy saving potential (EEP1 scenario) and its costs is estimated to be 3.0 EJ and 4.1 Billion $ in 2030. The technical energy savings potential (EEP2 scenario) and its costs amounts to 4.2 EJ and 8.4 Billion $ at the same time. Energy efficiency measures can help decrease 5-8% of CO2, 3-5% of PM, 15-25% of SO2, and 12-20% of NOx emissions by 2030. Overall, the average marginal costs of energy efficiency measures will decrease by 20%, from 1.48 $/GJ to 1.19 $/GJ, when taking into account avoided investments in air pollution control measures. Therefore, implementation of energy efficiency measures is more cost-effective than a solely end-of-pipe based policy in China's cement industry. The plant managers and end users can consider using energy efficiency measures to reach new air pollutants emission standards in China's cement industry.

China S Technological Catch Up Strategy

Author: Michael T. Rock
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190225653
Size: 77.49 MB
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Prior to 1979, China had a bifurcated and geographically-dispersed industrial structure made up of a relatively small number of large-scale, state-owned enterprises in various industries alongside numerous small-scale, energy-intensive and polluting enterprises. Economic reforms beginning in 1979 led to the rapid expansion of these small-scale manufacturing enterprises in numerous energy-intensive industries such as aluminum, cement, iron and steel, and pulp and paper. Subsequently, the government adopted a new industrial development strategy labeled "grasp the large, let go the small." The aims of this new policy were to close many of the unprofitable, small-scale manufacturing plants in these (and other) industries, create a small number of large enterprises that could compete with OECD multinationals, entice these larger enterprises to engage in high-speed technological catch-up, and save energy. China's Technological Catch-Up Strategy traces the impact of this new industrial development strategy on technological catch-up, energy use, and CO2 emissions. In doing so, the authors explore several detailed, enterprise-level case studies of technological catch-up; develop industry-wide estimates of energy and CO2 savings from specific catch-up interventions; and present detailed econometric work on the determinants of energy intensity. The authors conclude that China's strategy has contributred to substantial energy and CO2 savings, but it has not led to either a peaking of or a decline in CO2 emissions in these industries. More work is needed to cap and reduce China's CO2 emissions.