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Energy Resources Through Photochemistry And Catalysis

Author: Michael Gratzel
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323145140
Size: 57.18 MB
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Energy Resources through Photochemistry and Catalysis reviews the state of the art in the development of energy conversion devices based on catalytic and photochemical reactions. The focus is on catalysis of redox reactions and their application to the photocleavage of water, reduction of carbon dioxide, and fixation of nitrogen. Some fundamental aspects of catalysis as it relates to processes of light energy harvesting and charge separation in photochemical or photoelectrochemical conversion systems are also discussed. This monograph is comprised of 16 chapters covering light-induced redox reactions and reaction dynamics in organized assemblies such as micelles, colloidal metals, or semiconductors, together with strategies for molecular engineering of artificial photosynthetic devices. The principles of electrochemical conversion of light energy via semiconductor electrodes or semiconducting particles are also considered. Furthermore, thermodynamic characteristics for some reactions that can be utilized for storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy are examined. The remaining chapters look at the role of porphyrins in natural and artificial photosynthesis; the use of semiconductor powders and particulate systems for photocatalysis and photosynthesis; and hydrogen-generating solar cells based on platinum-group metal activated photocathodes. This text will be a useful resource for scientists and policymakers concerned with finding alternative sources of energy.

Homogeneous And Heterogeneous Photocatalysis

Author: E. PELIZZETTI
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400946422
Size: 38.56 MB
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Ever since the oil crisis of 1973, researchers in various fields of chemistry have proposed various schemes to conserve energy, as well to convert the sun's abundant and limitless supply of energy to produce chemical fuels (e. g. , hydrogen from water, . •. ). The enthusiasm had no previous parallel in the mid-1970's. Unfortunately, despite the several good proposals, the results have proven - in retrospect - somewhat disappointing from an economic viable point of view. The reasons for the meagre results are manyfold not the least of which are the experimental difficulties encountered in storage systems. Moreover, the lack of a concerted, well orchestrated interdisciplinary approach has been significant. By contrast, the chemical advances made in the understanding of the processes involved in such schemes have been phenomenal. A recent book on this issue ( M. Gratzel, Energy Resources through Photochemistry and Catalysis, 1983) is witness to the various efforts and approaches taken by researchers. In the recent years, many more groups have joined in these efforts, and the number of papers in the lit~rature is staggering ! One of the motives for organizing this NATO Advanced Research Workshop stemmed from our view that it was time to take stock of the accomplishments and rather than propose new schemes, it was time to consider seriously avenues that are most promising.

Photochemical Conversion And Storage Of Solar Energy

Author: E. PELIZZETTI
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401133964
Size: 45.46 MB
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The book collects the lectures and the status reports delivered during the "Eighth International Conference on Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy", IPS-8, held in Palermo (Italy) from 15th to 20th of July 1990. As usual, the main theme of the Conference was that of making the point about the trends and the developments of the studies related to the photochemical exploitation of solar energy and also to report the main lines of potential applications. Therefore the contributions reflect this point; they vary from those reporting basic and fundamental theories to those reporting cases of possible applications. For the sake of following the logical line which links each other the various contributions, we report the six areas in which the main theme of the conference was devided: (a) Electron and energy transfer in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems; (b) Photosynthesis: organized assemblies and biomimetic systems; (c) Photoelectrochemistry; (d) Photocatalysis: homogeneous and heterogeneous regime; (e) Environment: photochemical and photocatalytic processes; (f) Solar energy materials and photochemical engineering. It remains now to thank persons and institutions which made possible the organization of the Conference. The persons to thank are all the members of the International and National Organizing Committees and in particular Prof. A.Sclafani and Dr. L.Palmisano whose efforts were essential for the success of the Conference.

Principles And Practice Of Heterogeneous Catalysis

Author: John Meurig Thomas
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 352768378X
Size: 68.11 MB
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This long-awaited second edition of the successful introduction to the fundamentals of heterogeneous catalysis is now completely revised and updated. Written by internationally acclaimed experts, this textbook includes fundamentals of adsorption, characterizing catalysts and their surfaces, the significance of pore structure and surface area, solid-state and surface chemistry, poisoning, promotion, deactivation and selectivity of catalysts, as well as catalytic process engineering. A final section provides a number of examples and case histories. With its color and numerous graphics plus references to help readers to easily find further reading, this is a pivotal work for an understanding of the principles involved.

Sustainable Catalysis

Author: Rafael Luque
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527338675
Size: 50.45 MB
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Highlighting sustainable catalytic processes in synthetic organic chemistry, this useful guide places special emphasis on catalytic reactions carried out at room temperature. It describes the fundamentals, summarizes key advances, and covers applications in the field of organic synthesis, biomass conversion, and pollution control. Throughout, the latest research from various disciplines is combined, such as homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, biocatalysis, and photocatalysis. The book concludes with a chapter on future trends and energy challenges for the latter half of the 21st century and two case studies. With its multidisciplinary approach this is an essential reference for academic and industrial researchers in catalysis science aiming to design more sustainable and energy-efficient processes.

The Role Of Catalysis For The Sustainable Production Of Bio Fuels And Bio Chemicals

Author: Kostas Triantafyllidis
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0444563326
Size: 37.20 MB
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The Role of Catalysis for the Sustainable Production of Bio-fuels and Bio-chemicals describes the importance of catalysis for the sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals, focused primarily on the state-of-the-art catalysts and catalytic processes expected to play a decisive role in the "green" production of fuels and chemicals from biomass. In addition, the book includes general elements regarding the entire chain of biomass production, conversion, environment, economy, and life-cycle assessment. Very few books are available on catalysis in production schemes using biomass or its primary conversion products, such as bio-oil and lignin. This book fills that gap with detailed discussions of: Catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass Hybrid biogasoline by co-processing in FCC units Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to biofuels (biomass-to-liquid process) Steam reforming of bio-oils to hydrogen With energy prices rapidly rising, environmental concerns growing, and regulatory apparatus evolving, this book is a resource with tutorial, research, and technological value for chemists, chemical engineers, policymakers, and students. Includes catalytic reaction mechanism schemes and gives a clear understanding of catalytic processes Includes flow diagrams of bench-, pilot- and industrial-scale catalytic processing units and demonstrates the various process technologies involved, enabling easy selection of the best process Incorporates many tables, enabling easy comparison of data based on a critical review of the available literature