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Engineering Tools For Environmental Risk Management

Author: Katalin Gruiz
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315778777
Size: 56.90 MB
Format: PDF
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Chemical substances, physical agents and built structures exhibit various types of hazard due to their inherent toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, reprotoxic and sensitizing character or damaging to the immune and hormone system. The first steps in managing an environment contaminated by chemical substances are characterization of hazards and quantification of their risks. Chemical models — using only analytical data — are still the most widely used applications for assessing potential adverse effects and the fate and behavior of chemicals in the environment. Chemical models rely on the assumption that the adverse effect is proportional to the concentration, which in most cases is incorrect. In this volume, other models such as biological and ecological or regression models are discussed in detail and compared. Environmental risk management has two subsections: risk assessment and risk reduction. Environmental risk, to a large extent, arises from the adverse effects of chemicals and contaminated land; that is why measuring and testing these effects plays a key role in risk management. “Environmental Toxicology” deals with direct measurement of adverse effects of pure chemicals or environmental samples. This book has therefore been created specifically for engineers and gives a general overview of environmental toxicology. It provides an overview of hundreds of standardized and nonstandardized, generic and site-specific, conventional and innovative, animal and alternative test methods, and demonstrates how to apply these results to the regulation and management of environmental risk. In addition to human, aquatic and terrestrial methods for measuring toxicity, new trends in environmental analytics and the integration and complementary use of chemical analyses and the testing of effects are described. Bioavailability and accessibility as key parameters are detailed and the interactive and dynamic characterization of contaminants in soil is introduced. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation and interpretation of environmental fate and adverse effect data as well as the simulation of environmental processes and effects in microcosms and mesocosms.

Engineering Tools For Environmental Risk Management

Author: Katalin Gruiz
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315778785
Size: 28.88 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This is the first volume of the five-volume book series “Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management”, dealing with the following topics: • types and management of environmental deterioration, particularly pollution; • environmental toxicology as a versatile tool in monitoring and risk management; • risk assessment of chemical substances and contaminated land; • risk reduction measures, focusing on bio- and ecotechnologies; • case studies demonstrating the interaction between regulation, management and engineering and the individual application of engineering tools. The book series focuses on the state of knowledge concerning the environment and its conscious and structured application in environmental engineering, management, decision making and legislation. This first volume provides an overview of the behavior and function of the healthy environment and the capacity of the ecosystem to serve mankind and to compensate for adverse changes. The prime causes of these changes are production and use of chemical substances, abandoned and contaminated land, intensive agriculture, mining and the complex problem of waste. The first volume establishes the foundation of the holistic approach used in a progressive environmental protection by: • striking a balance between nature’s needs and engineering capabilities; • understanding the interaction between regulation, management and engineering; • applying novel technologies and innovative scientifi c and engineering tools. The aggregated information and knowledge disseminated in this volume provides a broad perspective for engineers to adjust their tools to the best management practices and for managers and decision makers to fi nd synergy between their goals and existing engineering solutions. This book series focuses on the state of knowledge about the environment and its conscious and structured application in environmental engineering, management and decision making.

Environmental Risk Assessment And Management From A Landscape Perspective

Author: Lawrence A. Kapustka
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470593011
Size: 44.27 MB
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An important guide to assessing and managing the environment from a landscape perspective Ecological relationships are nested within the landscape. Identifying the relevant spatial and temporal scales is critical for an effective understanding of ecological functions that human societies depend upon. Moreover, human encroachment into natural areas, or changes in climate, can alter spatial relationships, which in turn can negatively affect vital plant and wildlife patterns—and weaken economic structures needed to sustain human societies. This book is the first to combine multiple disciplines into one cohesive strategy to study these crucial connections, and looks toward building a social paradigm that embraces the dynamics of ecological systems. This book: Integrates landscape ecology, environmental risk assessment, valuation of ecological goods and services, and environmental management decision processes into one single source Includes chapters on quantitative measures, Bayesian modeling,¿economic analysis, and sustainable landscapes Covers marine, forest, agricultural, and pharmaceutical risk assessment Has a chapter on predicting climate change risk to ecosystems Has a companion ftp site with color graphics, animations, and risk assessment tools With material that is accessible across all knowledge levels, Environmental Risk Assessment and Management from a Landscape Perspective moves beyond looking solely at chemical contaminants to diagnose environmental threats, and aims to accomplish practical risk assessment in a manner that supports long-term sustainable management.

Engineering Tools For Environmental Risk Management

Author: Katalin Gruiz
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1317697456
Size: 10.80 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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This is the third volume of the five-volume book series “Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management”. The book series deals with the following topics: • Environmental deterioration and pollution, management of environmental problems • Environmental toxicology – a tool for managing chemical substances and contaminated environment • Assessment and monitoring tools, risk assessment • Risk reduction measures and technologies • Case studies for demonstration of the application of engineering tools The authors aim to describe interactions and options in risk management by providing a broad scientific overview of the environment, its human uses and the associated local, regional and global environmental problems; interpreting the holistic approach used in solving environmental protection issues; striking a balance between nature’s needs and engineering capabilities; understanding interactions between regulation, management and engineering; obtaining information about novel technologies and innovative engineering tools. This third volume provides an overview on the basic principles, concepts, practices and tools of environmental monitoring and contaminated site assessment. The volume focuses on those engineering tools that enable integrated site assessment and decision making and ensure an efficient control of the environment. Some topics supporting sustainable land use and efficient environmental management are listed below: • Efficient management and regulation of contaminated land and the environment; • Early warning and environmental monitoring; • Assessment of contaminated land: the best practices; • Environmental sampling; • Risk characterization and contaminated matrix assessment; • Integrated application of physical, chemical, biological, ecological and (eco) toxicological characterization methods; • Direct toxicity assessment (DTA) and decision making; • Online analyzers, electrodes and biosensors for assessment and monitoring of waters.; • In situ and real-time measurement tools for soil and contaminated sites; • Rapid on-site methods and contaminant and toxicity assessment kits; • Engineering tools from omics technologies, microsensors to heavy machinery; • Dynamic characterization of subsurface soil and groundwater using membrane interface probes, optical and X-ray fl uorescence and ELCAD wastewater characterization; • Geochemical modeling: methods and applications; • Environmental assessment using cyclodextrins. This book series focuses on the state of knowledge about the environment and its conscious and structured application in environmental engineering, management and decision making.

Quantitative Environmental Risk Analysis For Human Health

Author: Robert A. Fjeld
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470096195
Size: 77.40 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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A COMPREHENSIVE TEXTBOOK AND REFERENCE FOR QUANTITATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ANALYSIS FOR BOTH CHEMICAL AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS Environmental risk analysis is complex and interdisciplinary; this book explains the fundamental concepts and analytical methods in each essential discipline. With an emphasis on concepts and applications of quantitative tools plus coverage of analysis of both chemical and radioactive contaminants, this is a comprehensive resource. After an introduction and an overview of the basics of environmental modeling, the book covers key elements in environmental risk analysis methodology, including: Release assessment and source characterization Migration of contaminants in various media, including surface water, groundwater, the atmosphere, and the food chain Exposure assessment Basic human toxicology and dose-response Risk characterization, including dose-response modeling and analysis Risk management process and methods Risk communication and public participation This reference also relates risk analysis to current environmental laws and regulations. An ideal textbook for graduate students and upper-level undergraduates in various engineering and quantitative science disciplines, especially civil and environmental engineering, it is also a great reference for practitioners in industry, environmental consulting firms, and regulatory agencies.

Environmental Toxicology

Author: Ming-Ho Yu
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439832776
Size: 53.72 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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How are pollutants transformed after their release into the environment? How are organisms exposed, and how do physiological alterations impact population dynamics and community structure? What direct or indirect impacts occur? As early as the 50s and 60s people living near industrial plants began to recognize undesirable changes in their environment - and to ask these very questions. The discipline of environmental toxicology addresses these questions. Written by an expert with over twenty years experience, Environmental Toxicology covers the physiological and toxicological effects of environmental toxicants on living systems. It explores the sources, and the physical and chemical characteristics of toxicants. It goes further to highlight their impact on plants, animals, and humans. The author furnishes information on the mechanism of action of individual chemicals and chemical combinations including cellular damage at the molecular level. He defines environmental toxicology and discusses the relationship between human activities and their impacts on living systems. He furnishes an overview of our changing environment and the possible link between that environment and the changing pattern of human diseases. Environmental Toxicology provides fundamental knowledge on the toxicological effects of environmental chemicals on living systems. Its fifteen chapters cover the occurrence of toxicants, air pollution, environmental metals, pesticides and related materials such as PCBs and dioxins, mutagenesis, and environmental cancer. This useful resource will enhance your knowledge of the impacts of environmental toxicants on living organisms.

Environmental Risk Assessment

Author: Ted Simon
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466598301
Size: 19.18 MB
Format: PDF
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The purpose of risk assessment is to support science-based decisions about how to solve complex societal problems. The problems we face in the twenty-first century have many social, political, and technical complexities. Environmental risk assessment in particular is of increasing importance as a means of seeking to address the potential effects of chemicals in the environment in both the developed and developing world. Environmental Risk Assessment: A Toxicological Approach examines various aspects of problem formulation, exposure, toxicity, and risk characterization that apply to both human health and ecological risk assessment. The book is aimed at the next generation of risk assessors and students who need to know more about developing, conducting, and interpreting risk assessments. It delivers a comprehensive view of the field, complete with sufficient background to enable readers to probe for themselves the science underlying the key issues in environmental risk. Written in an engaging and lively style by a highly experienced risk assessment practitioner, the text: Introduces the science of risk assessment—past, present, and future Covers problem formation and the development of exposure factors Explains how human epidemiology and animal testing data are used to determine toxicity criteria Provides environmental sampling data for conducting practice risk assessments Examines the use of in vitro and ‘omics methods for toxicity testing Describes the political and social aspects of science-based decisions in the twenty-first century Includes fully worked examples, case studies, discussion questions, and links to legislative hearings Readers of this volume will not only learn how to execute site-specific human health and ecological risk assessments but also gain a greater understanding of how science is used in deciding environmental regulations.

Water Contamination And Health

Author: Rhoda G.M. Wang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824789220
Size: 78.87 MB
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This volume examines every potential means of exposure to water contaminants, provides in-depth discussions on toxicology, and explains up-to-date techniques for evaluating human health risk. It develops a methodology for assessing the cumulative absorbed dose of contaminants through all routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation and dermal. Federal and state efforts to monitor and treat water are examined.

Science And Decisions

Author: Committee on Improving Risk Analysis Approaches Used by the U.S. EPA
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309120462
Size: 67.86 MB
Format: PDF
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Risk assessment has become a dominant public policy tool for making choices, based on limited resources, to protect public health and the environment. It has been instrumental to the mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as other federal agencies in evaluating public health concerns, informing regulatory and technological decisions, prioritizing research needs and funding, and in developing approaches for cost-benefit analysis. However, risk assessment is at a crossroads. Despite advances in the field, risk assessment faces a number of significant challenges including lengthy delays in making complex decisions; lack of data leading to significant uncertainty in risk assessments; and many chemicals in the marketplace that have not been evaluated and emerging agents requiring assessment. Science and Decisions makes practical scientific and technical recommendations to address these challenges. This book is a complement to the widely used 1983 National Academies book, Risk Assessment in the Federal Government (also known as the Red Book). The earlier book established a framework for the concepts and conduct of risk assessment that has been adopted by numerous expert committees, regulatory agencies, and public health institutions. The new book embeds these concepts within a broader framework for risk-based decision-making. Together, these are essential references for those working in the regulatory and public health fields.

Science And Judgment In Risk Assessment

Author: Committee on Risk Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutants
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309556228
Size: 44.52 MB
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The public depends on competent risk assessment from the federal government and the scientific community to grapple with the threat of pollution. When risk reports turn out to be overblown--or when risks are overlooked--public skepticism abounds. This comprehensive and readable book explores how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) can improve its risk assessment practices, with a focus on implementation of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. With a wealth of detailed information, pertinent examples, and revealing analysis, the volume explores the "default option" and other basic concepts. It offers two views of EPA operations: The first examines how EPA currently assesses exposure to hazardous air pollutants, evaluates the toxicity of a substance, and characterizes the risk to the public. The second, more holistic, view explores how EPA can improve in several critical areas of risk assessment by focusing on cross-cutting themes and incorporating more scientific judgment. This comprehensive volume will be important to the EPA and other agencies, risk managers, environmental advocates, scientists, faculty, students, and concerned individuals.