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Environmental Impact Of Polymers

Author: Thierry Hamaide
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118827090
Size: 22.65 MB
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This text addresses the common negative perception of polymer materials on the environment with a thorough analysis of what really occurs when industry and academia collaborate to find environmental solutions. The book examines the environmental and social effects of polymer materials and explains methods of quantifying environmental performance. With an emphasis on the importance of education, the authors stress the importance of awareness and activity in negating polymers' environmental impact.

Ionic And Electrochemical Equilibria

Author: Michel Soustelle
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119178614
Size: 31.57 MB
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This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been paid to the rigor of mathematical developments. This sixth volume is made up of two parts. The first part focuses on the study of ionic equilibria in water or non-aqueous solvents. The following are then discussed in succession: the dissociation of electrolytes, solvents and solvation, acid-base equilibria, formation of complexes, redox equilibria and the problems of precipitation. Part 2 discusses electrochemical thermodynamics, with the study of two groups: electrodes and electrochemical cells. The book concludes with the study of potential-pH diagrams and their generalization in an aqueous or non-aqueous medium.

Thermodynamics Of Surfaces And Capillary Systems

Author: Michel Soustelle
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119178649
Size: 26.17 MB
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This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been given to the rigor of mathematical developments. This volume, the final of the Chemical Thermodynamics Set, offers an in-depth examination of chemical thermodynamics. The author uses systems of liquids, vapors, solids and mixtures of these in thermodynamic approaches to determine the influence of the temperature and pressure on the surface tension and its consequences on specific heat capacities and latent heats. Electro-capillary phenomena, the thermodynamics of cylindrical capillary and small volume-phases are also discussed, along with a thermodynamic study of the phenomenon of nucleation of a condensed phase and the properties of thin liquid films. The final chapters discuss the phenomena of physical adsorption and chemical adsorption of gases by solid surfaces. In an Appendix, applications of physical adsorption for the determination of the specific areas of solids and their porosity are given.

Dyes And Chomophores In Polymer Science

Author: Jacques Lalev?e
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119006686
Size: 13.85 MB
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The design and development of dyes and chromophores have recently attracted much attention in various research fields such as materials, radiation curing, (laser) imaging, optics, medicine, microelectronics, nanotechnology, etc.. In this book, the recent research for the use of dyes and chromophores in polymer science is presented. The interaction of the visible light with the dyes or the selected chromophores is particularly important in different fields (e.g. for photovoltaic, display applications (LED ...), laser imaging or laser direct writing, green chemistry with sunlight induced photopolymerization etc ...). This book gives an overview of the dyes and chromophores for all the important fields.

Plastics And The Environment

Author: Anthony L. Andrady
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471095200
Size: 29.81 MB
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An original, comprehensive survey on the complex relationship between plastics and the environment Plastics offer a variety of environmental benefits. However, their production, applications, and disposal present many environmental concerns. Plastics and the Environment provides state-of-the-art technical and research information on the complex relationship between the plastic and polymer industry and the environment, focusing on the sustainability, environmental impact, and cost-benefit tradeoffs associated with different technologies. Bringing together the field's leading researchers, Anthony Andrady's innovative collection not only covers how plastics affect the environment, but also how environmental factors affect plastics. The relative benefits of recycling, resource recovery, and energy recovery are also discussed in detail. The first of the book's four sections represents a basic introduction to the key subject matter of plastics and the environment; the second explores several pertinent applications of plastics with environmental implications-packaging, paints and coatings, textiles, and agricultural film use. The third section discusses the behavior of plastics in some of the environments in which they are typically used, such as the outdoors, in biotic environments, or in fires. The final section consists of chapters on recycling and thermal treatment of plastics waste. Chapters include: * Commodity Polymers * Plastics in Transportation * Biodegradation of Common Polymers * Thermal Treatment of Polymer Waste * Incineration of Plastics The contributors also focus on the effectiveness of recent technologies in mitigating environmental impacts, particularly those for managing plastics in the solid waste stream. Plastic and design engineers, polymer chemists, material scientists, and ecologists will find Plastics and the Environment to be a vital resource to this critical industry.

Applied Rve Reconstruction And Homogenization Of Heterogeneous Materials

Author: Yves Rémond
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119307570
Size: 78.94 MB
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Statistical correlation functions are a well-known class of statistical descriptors that can be used to describe the morphology and the microstructure-properties relationship. A comprehensive study has been performed for the use of these correlation functions for the reconstruction and homogenization in nano-composite materials. Correlation functions are measured from different techniques such as microscopy (SEM or TEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and can be generated through Monte Carlo simulations. In this book, different experimental techniques such as SAXS and image processing are presented, which are used to measure two-point correlation function correlation for multi-phase polymer composites. Higher order correlation functions must be calculated or measured to increase the precision of the statistical continuum approach. To achieve this aim, a new approximation methodology is utilized to obtain N-point correlation functions for multiphase heterogeneous materials. The two-point functions measured by different techniques have been exploited to reconstruct the microstructure of heterogeneous media. Statistical continuum theory is used to predict the effective thermal conductivity and elastic modulus of polymer composites. N-point probability functions as statistical descriptors of inclusions have been exploited to solve strong contrast homogenization for effective thermal conductivity and elastic modulus properties of heterogeneous materials. Finally, reconstructed microstructure is used to calculate effective properties and damage modeling of heterogeneous materials.

Polymer Composites Macro And Microcomposites

Author: Sabu Thomas
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527645233
Size: 20.67 MB
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The first systematic reference on the topic with an emphasis on the characteristics and dimension of the reinforcement. This first of three volumes, authored by leading researchers in the field from academia, government, industry, as well as private research institutions around the globe, focuses on macro and micro composites. Clearly divided into three sections, the first offers an introduction to polymer composites, discussing the state of the art, new challenges, and opportunities of various polymer composite systems, as well as preparation and manufacturing techniques. The second part looks at macro systems, with an emphasis on fiber reinforced polymer composites, textile composites, and polymer hybrid composites. Likewise, the final section deals with micro systems, including micro particle reinforced polymer composites, the synthesis, surface modification and characterization of micro particulate fillers and flakes as well as filled polymer micro composites, plus applications and the recovery, recycling and life cycle analysis of synthetic polymeric composites.

Fatigue Of Textile And Short Fiber Reinforced Composites

Author: Valter Carvelli
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119413524
Size: 54.34 MB
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This book covers several aspects of the fatigue behavior of textile and short fiber reinforced composites. The first part is dedicated to 2D and 3D reinforced textile composites and includes a systematic description of the damage evolution for quasi-static and tensile-tensile fatigue loadings. Acoustic emissions and digital image correlation are considered in order to detect the damage modes’ initiation and development. The acoustic emission thresholds of the quasi-static loading are connected to the “fatigue limit” of the materials with distinctions for glass and carbon reinforcements. The second part is devoted to the fatigue behavior of injection molded short fiber reinforced composites. Experimental evidence highlights the dependence of their fatigue response on various factors: fiber and matrix materials, fiber distribution, environmental and loading conditions are described. A hybrid (experimental/simulations) multi-scale method is presented, which drastically reduces the amount of experimental data necessary for reliable fatigue life predictions.

Mechanics Of Dislocation Fields

Author: Claude Fressengeas
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118578317
Size: 50.82 MB
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Accompanying the present trend of engineering systems aimed at size reduction and design at microscopic/nanoscopic length scales, Mechanics of Dislocation Fields describes the self-organization of dislocation ensembles at small length scales and its consequences on the overall mechanical behavior of crystalline bodies. The account of the fundamental interactions between the dislocations and other microscopic crystal defects is based on the use of smooth field quantities and powerful tools from the mathematical theory of partial differential equations. The resulting theory is able to describe the emergence of dislocation microstructures and their evolution along complex loading paths. Scale transitions are performed between the properties of the dislocation ensembles and the mechanical behavior of the body. Several variants of this overall scheme are examined which focus on dislocation cores, electromechanical interactions of dislocations with electric charges in dielectric materials, the intermittency and scale-invariance of dislocation activity, grain-to-grain interactions in polycrystals, size effects on mechanical behavior and path dependence of strain hardening.

Materials And Thermodynamics

Author: Pierre Delhaes
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119427975
Size: 80.58 MB
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A thermodynamic system is defined according to its environment and its compliance. This book promotes the classification of materials from generalized thermodynamics outside the equilibrium state and not solely according to their chemical origin. The author goes beyond standard classification of materials and extends it to take into account the living, ecological, economic and financial systems in which they exist: all these systems can be classified according to their deviation from an ideal situation of thermodynamic equilibrium. The concepts of dynamic complexity and hierarchy, emphasizing the crucial role played by cycles and rhythms, then become fundamental. Finally, the limitations of the uniqueness of this description that depend on thermodynamic foundations based on the concepts of energy and entropy are discussed in relation to the cognitive sciences.