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Environmental Impact Of Polymers

Author: Thierry Hamaide
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118827090
Size: 31.23 MB
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This text addresses the common negative perception of polymer materials on the environment with a thorough analysis of what really occurs when industry and academia collaborate to find environmental solutions. The book examines the environmental and social effects of polymer materials and explains methods of quantifying environmental performance. With an emphasis on the importance of education, the authors stress the importance of awareness and activity in negating polymers' environmental impact.

Ionic And Electrochemical Equilibria

Author: Michel Soustelle
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119178614
Size: 58.70 MB
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This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been paid to the rigor of mathematical developments. This sixth volume is made up of two parts. The first part focuses on the study of ionic equilibria in water or non-aqueous solvents. The following are then discussed in succession: the dissociation of electrolytes, solvents and solvation, acid-base equilibria, formation of complexes, redox equilibria and the problems of precipitation. Part 2 discusses electrochemical thermodynamics, with the study of two groups: electrodes and electrochemical cells. The book concludes with the study of potential-pH diagrams and their generalization in an aqueous or non-aqueous medium.

Thermodynamics Of Surfaces And Capillary Systems

Author: Michel Soustelle
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119178649
Size: 32.27 MB
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This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been given to the rigor of mathematical developments. This volume, the final of the Chemical Thermodynamics Set, offers an in-depth examination of chemical thermodynamics. The author uses systems of liquids, vapors, solids and mixtures of these in thermodynamic approaches to determine the influence of the temperature and pressure on the surface tension and its consequences on specific heat capacities and latent heats. Electro-capillary phenomena, the thermodynamics of cylindrical capillary and small volume-phases are also discussed, along with a thermodynamic study of the phenomenon of nucleation of a condensed phase and the properties of thin liquid films. The final chapters discuss the phenomena of physical adsorption and chemical adsorption of gases by solid surfaces. In an Appendix, applications of physical adsorption for the determination of the specific areas of solids and their porosity are given.

Dyes And Chomophores In Polymer Science

Author: Jacques Lalev?e
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119006686
Size: 48.11 MB
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The design and development of dyes and chromophores have recently attracted much attention in various research fields such as materials, radiation curing, (laser) imaging, optics, medicine, microelectronics, nanotechnology, etc.. In this book, the recent research for the use of dyes and chromophores in polymer science is presented. The interaction of the visible light with the dyes or the selected chromophores is particularly important in different fields (e.g. for photovoltaic, display applications (LED ...), laser imaging or laser direct writing, green chemistry with sunlight induced photopolymerization etc ...). This book gives an overview of the dyes and chromophores for all the important fields.

Plastics And The Environment

Author: Anthony L. Andrady
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471095200
Size: 61.78 MB
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An original, comprehensive survey on the complex relationship between plastics and the environment Plastics offer a variety of environmental benefits. However, their production, applications, and disposal present many environmental concerns. Plastics and the Environment provides state-of-the-art technical and research information on the complex relationship between the plastic and polymer industry and the environment, focusing on the sustainability, environmental impact, and cost-benefit tradeoffs associated with different technologies. Bringing together the field's leading researchers, Anthony Andrady's innovative collection not only covers how plastics affect the environment, but also how environmental factors affect plastics. The relative benefits of recycling, resource recovery, and energy recovery are also discussed in detail. The first of the book's four sections represents a basic introduction to the key subject matter of plastics and the environment; the second explores several pertinent applications of plastics with environmental implications-packaging, paints and coatings, textiles, and agricultural film use. The third section discusses the behavior of plastics in some of the environments in which they are typically used, such as the outdoors, in biotic environments, or in fires. The final section consists of chapters on recycling and thermal treatment of plastics waste. Chapters include: * Commodity Polymers * Plastics in Transportation * Biodegradation of Common Polymers * Thermal Treatment of Polymer Waste * Incineration of Plastics The contributors also focus on the effectiveness of recent technologies in mitigating environmental impacts, particularly those for managing plastics in the solid waste stream. Plastic and design engineers, polymer chemists, material scientists, and ecologists will find Plastics and the Environment to be a vital resource to this critical industry.

Applied Rve Reconstruction And Homogenization Of Heterogeneous Materials

Author: Yves Rémond
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119307570
Size: 10.77 MB
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Statistical correlation functions are a well-known class of statistical descriptors that can be used to describe the morphology and the microstructure-properties relationship. A comprehensive study has been performed for the use of these correlation functions for the reconstruction and homogenization in nano-composite materials. Correlation functions are measured from different techniques such as microscopy (SEM or TEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and can be generated through Monte Carlo simulations. In this book, different experimental techniques such as SAXS and image processing are presented, which are used to measure two-point correlation function correlation for multi-phase polymer composites. Higher order correlation functions must be calculated or measured to increase the precision of the statistical continuum approach. To achieve this aim, a new approximation methodology is utilized to obtain N-point correlation functions for multiphase heterogeneous materials. The two-point functions measured by different techniques have been exploited to reconstruct the microstructure of heterogeneous media. Statistical continuum theory is used to predict the effective thermal conductivity and elastic modulus of polymer composites. N-point probability functions as statistical descriptors of inclusions have been exploited to solve strong contrast homogenization for effective thermal conductivity and elastic modulus properties of heterogeneous materials. Finally, reconstructed microstructure is used to calculate effective properties and damage modeling of heterogeneous materials.

Polymer Composites Macro And Microcomposites

Author: Sabu Thomas
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527645233
Size: 20.76 MB
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The first systematic reference on the topic with an emphasis on the characteristics and dimension of the reinforcement. This first of three volumes, authored by leading researchers in the field from academia, government, industry, as well as private research institutions around the globe, focuses on macro and micro composites. Clearly divided into three sections, the first offers an introduction to polymer composites, discussing the state of the art, new challenges, and opportunities of various polymer composite systems, as well as preparation and manufacturing techniques. The second part looks at macro systems, with an emphasis on fiber reinforced polymer composites, textile composites, and polymer hybrid composites. Likewise, the final section deals with micro systems, including micro particle reinforced polymer composites, the synthesis, surface modification and characterization of micro particulate fillers and flakes as well as filled polymer micro composites, plus applications and the recovery, recycling and life cycle analysis of synthetic polymeric composites.

Particle And Continuum Aspects Of Mesomechanics

Author: George C. Sih
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470393440
Size: 79.67 MB
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This title brings together a variety of papers presented at the 9th annual Meso meeting in 2007. The topics selected for Meso 2007 are designed to illustrate the relation of thresholds to multiscaling: Flow through capillary tubes in contrast to pipes Laminar and turbulent flow transition Heat convection of thin wires in contrast to cylinders Electrical conductance of macro- and nano-circuits Rubbery and glassy polymers Single- and poly-crystal behavior Strength of wires and round cylindrical bars Uni-axial and multi-axial material: linear and non-linear response Thin and thick plate behavior Brittle and ductile fracture Small and large crack growth behavior Low and high temperature effects Local and global material property characteristics Small and large bodies: size and time effects Specimen and structure

Fatigue Of Textile Composites

Author: Valter Carvelli
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1782422935
Size: 77.52 MB
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Fatigue of Textile Composites provides a current, state-of-art review on recent investigations on the fatigue behavior of composite materials, mainly those reinforced with textiles. As this particular group of composite materials is extremely important for a wide variety of industrial applications, including automotive, aeronautical, and marine, etc., mainly due to their peculiarities and advantages with respect to unidirectional laminated composites, the text presents comprehensive information on the huge variety of interlacement geometric architectures that are suitable for a broad range of different applications, their excellent drapability and versatility, which is highly important for complex double-curvature shape components and three-dimensional woven fabrics without plane reinforcement, and their main mechanical characteristics which are currently in high demand from industry. Presents the current state-of-the-art investigations on fatigue behavior of composite materials, mainly those reinforced with textiles Contains invaluable information pertaining to a wide variety of industries, including automotive, aeronautical, and marine, amongst others Provides comprehensive information on the huge variety of interlacement geometric architectures that are suitable for a broad range of different applications

Brittle Fracture And Damage Of Brittle Materials And Composites

Author: Jacques Lamon
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 008101161X
Size: 39.38 MB
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Flaws are the principal source of fracture in many materials, whether brittle or ductile, whether nearly homogeneous or composite. They are introduced during either fabrication or surface preparation or during exposure to aggressive environments (e. g. oxidation, shocks). The critical flaws act as stress concentrators and initiate cracks that propagate instantaneously to failure in the absence of crack arrest phenomena as encountered in brittle materials. This book explores those brittle materials susceptible to crack arrest and the flaws which initiate crack induced damage. A detailed description of microstructural features covering numerous brittle materials, including ceramics, glass, concrete, metals, polymers and ceramic fibers to help you develop your knowledge of material fracture. Brittle Failure and Damage of Brittle Materials and Composites outlines the technological progress in this field and the need for reliable systems with high performances to help you advance the development of new structural materials, creating advantages of low density, high resistance to elevated temperatures and aggressive environments, and good mechanical properties. The effects of flaw populations on fracture strength The main statistical-probabilistic approaches to brittle fracture The use of these methods for predictions of failure and effects induced by flaw populations The application of these methods to component design The methods of estimation of statistical parameters that define flaw strength distributions The extension of these approaches to damage and failure of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites