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Environmental Impacts Of Hydraulic Fracturing

Author: Frank R. Spellman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466514671
Size: 56.83 MB
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There is a strong need for innovation and the development of viable renewable energy sources. Recent technological advances now allow natural gas supplies—previously believed inaccessible or nonexistent—to be discovered, mined, and processed for both industrial and consumer use. The technology, a controversial process that is alternatively called hydraulic fracturing, fracking, fracing, or hydrofracking, has greatly expanded natural gas production in the United States. Presenting a balanced discussion, Environmental Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing is a comprehensive guide to all aspects of hydraulic fracturing used to extract natural gas, along with gas exploration and production in various shale fields. As the use of hydraulic fracturing has grown, concerns about its environmental and public health impacts have also increased—one of the most significant concerns being the fluids that are injected into rock formations to cause the fracturing contain potentially hazardous chemical additives. The book covers all facets of the issue, including ongoing controversies about the environmental and operator safety issues arising from possible water pollution, drinking water contamination, on-the-job safety hazards, and harmful chemical exposure to workers and residents near well areas. The author discusses both the pros and cons of hydraulic fracturing, explaining the process in great detail. He describes the benefits of hydraulic fracturing and its importance in making the United States energy independent by drilling for its own resources, as well as the potential impacts to the surrounding environment. The text also includes suggestions and recommendations on how to mitigate environmental damage. Arguably the first book of its kind, this is the go-to text on the use and impacts of hydraulic fracturing.

The Effects Of Induced Hydraulic Fracturing On The Environment

Author: Matthew McBroom
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 148223095X
Size: 32.68 MB
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This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. Hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking" as it is commonly known, refers to the practice of using liquids at very high pressures to fragment rock, thereby allowing natural gas to be harvested. This process increases energy resources but also has some negative environmental impacts as well. This book looks at the environmental impact. The first section looks at fracturing and the water supply, the second section looks at ecosystems and wildlife, while the final section examines the possible effects on human ecosystems and human health.

Hydraulic Fracturing

Author: Source Wikipedia
Publisher: Booksllc.Net
ISBN: 9781230792231
Size: 19.32 MB
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 29. Chapters: Chevron CRUSH, Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing, ExxonMobil Electrofrac, FrackNation, Frack Off, Fracturing Responsibility and Awareness of Chemicals Act, Gasland, Hydro-slotted perforation, List of additives for hydraulic fracturing, Proppants and fracking fluids, Radionuclides associated with hydraulic fracturing, Solids control. Excerpt: Hydraulic fracturing is the propagation of fractures in a rock layer by a pressurized fluid. Some hydraulic fractures form naturally-certain veins or dikes are examples-and can create conduits along which gas and petroleum from source rocks may migrate to reservoir rocks. Induced hydraulic fracturing or hydrofracturing, commonly known as fracing, fraccing, or fracking, is a technique used to release petroleum, natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal seam gas), or other substances for extraction. This type of fracturing creates fractures from a wellbore drilled into reservoir rock formations. The first experimental use of hydraulic fracturing was in 1947, and the first commercially successful applications in 1949. As of 2010, it was estimated that 60% of all new oil and gas wells worldwide were being hydraulically fractured. Proponents of hydraulic fracturing point to the economic benefits from vast amounts of formerly inaccessible hydrocarbons the process can extract. Opponents point to potential environmental impacts, including contamination of ground water, risks to air quality, the migration of gases and hydraulic fracturing chemicals to the surface, surface contamination from spills and flowback and the health effects of these. For these reasons hydraulic fracturing has come under scrutiny internationally, with some countries suspending or banning it. Fracturing in rocks at depth tends to be suppressed by the confining pressure, due to the load...

Numerical Simulation Of The Environmental Impact Of Hydraulic Fracturing Of Tight Shale Gas Reservoirs On Near Surface Groundwater

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Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.

Hydraulic Fracturing Impacts And Technologies

Author: Venki Uddameri
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498721214
Size: 49.16 MB
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Hydraulic Fracturing Impacts and Technologies: A Multidisciplinary Perspective serves as an introduction to hydraulic fracturing and provides balanced coverage of its benefits and potential negative effects. Presenting a holistic assessment of hydraulic fracturing and its environmental impacts, this book chronicles the history and development of unconventional oil and gas production and describes the risks associated with the use of these technologies. More specifically, it addresses hydraulic fracturing’s use and dependence on large amounts of water as a fracturing medium. It examines the limits of reusing flowback and produced water, explores cost-effective ways to clean or effectively dispose of water used in fracturing, and provides suggestions for the efficient use, discovery, and recycle potential of non-potable water. Utilizing a team of experts from industry and academia, the text provides readers with a multiple lens approach—incorporating various perspectives and solutions surrounding this evolving technology. This book: Leads with an overview of hydraulic fracturing operations and technologies Considers a variety of legal issues associated with hydraulic fracturing Summarizes human health and environmental risks associated with hydraulic fracturing operations Discusses the analytes chosen by researchers as possible indicators of groundwater contamination from unconventional drilling processes Presents strategies for reducing the freshwater footprint of hydraulic fracturing Discusses water treatment technologies and solutions to recycle and reuse produced waters, and more Hydraulic Fracturing Impacts and Technologies: A Multidisciplinary Perspective brings together experts from disciplines that include petroleum, civil, and environmental engineering; environmental sciences chemistry toxicology; law; media; and communications; and provides readers with a multidisciplinary outlook and unbiased, scientifically credible solutions to issues surrounding hydraulic fracturing operations.

Tracking Fracking

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Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is an unconventional gas extraction technique that enables the exploitation of new gas and oil reserves in subterranean shale deposits. The environmental effects of unconventional oil and gas extraction are the subject of an emotional debate among local citizens, legislators, government regulatory bodies, and the oil and gas industry. Claims that hydraulic fracturing causes harmful atmospheric emissions, groundwater and soil pollution, and earthquakes have not been decisively addressed because of the absence of systematic analysis and monitoring of hydraulic fracturing impacts.This team project provides an approach for monitoring the atmospheric effects of the hydraulic fracturing process. We review the economic, political, legal, and social context at the international, U.S., and Ohio levels, describe the hydraulic fracturing process, and discuss potential environmental effects. It we proposes a multi-platform monitoring system using existing and future satellite instrumentation, which can be implemented anywhere on Earth, and a roadmap to guide rollout of the proposal. When our proposed monitoring system is implemented, citizens and decision makers will have access to accurate data to evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of hydraulic fracturing.

Hydraulic Fracturing Explained

Author: Erle C. Donaldson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0127999965
Size: 60.97 MB
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Rocks mechanics legend Erle Donaldson, along with colleagues Waqi Alam and Nasrin Begum from the oil and gas consultant company Tetrahedron, have authored this handbook on updated fundamentals and more recent technology used during a common hydraulic fracturing procedure. Meant for technical and non-technical professionals interested in the subject of hydraulic fracturing, the book provides a clear and simple explanation of the technology and related issues to promote the safe development of petroleum reserves leading to energy independence throughout the world.

The Real Cost Of Fracking

Author: Michelle Bamberger
Publisher: Beacon Press
ISBN: 0807081418
Size: 28.51 MB
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Across the country, fracking -- the extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing -- is being touted as the nation's answer to energy independence and a fix for a flagging economy. Drilling companies assure us that the process is safe, politicians push through drilling legislation without a serious public-health debate, and those who speak out are marginalized, their silence purchased by gas companies and their warnings about the dangers of fracking stifled. The Real Cost of Fracking pulls back the curtain on how this toxic process endangers the environment and harms people, pets, and livestock. Michelle Bamberger, a veterinarian, and Robert Oswald, a pharmacologist, combine their expertise to show how contamination at drilling sites translates into ill health and heartbreak for families and their animals. By giving voice to the people at ground zero of the fracking debate, the authors illustrate the consequences of fracking and issue an urgent warning to all of us: fracking poses a dire threat to the air we breathe, the water we drink, and even our food supply. Bamberger and Oswald reveal the harrowing experiences of small farmers who have lost their animals, their livelihoods, and their peace of mind, and of rural families whose property values have plummeted as their towns have been invaded by drillers. At the same time, these stories give us hope, as people band together to help one another and courageously fight to reclaim their communities. The debate over fracking speaks to a core dilemma of contemporary life: we require energy to live with modern conveniences, but what degree of environmental degradation, health risks, and threats to our food supply are we willing to accept to obtain that energy?

Fracking

Author: Tamara Thompson
Publisher: Greenhaven Press, Incorporated
ISBN: 9780737765090
Size: 80.75 MB
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"At Issue: Fracking: Books in this anthology series focus a wide range of viewpoints onto a single controversial issue, providing in-depth discussions by leading advocates, a quick grounding in the issues, and a challenge to critical thinking skills"--