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Epidemiological Research Terms And Concepts

Author: O. S. Miettinen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400711716
Size: 60.30 MB
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The book is organized so as to address in separate sections first the preparatory topics of medicine (clinical and epidemiological), science in general, and statistics (mathematical); then topics of epidemiological research proper; and, finally, topics of ‘meta-epidemiological’ clinical research. In those two main sections, a further grouping is based on the distraction between objects and methods of study. In this framework, the particular topics are addressed both descriptively and quasi-prescriptively, commonly with a number of explicatory annotations. This book is intended to serve as a handbook for whomever is, in whatever way, concerned with epidemiological or ‘meta-epidemiological’ clinical research. But besides this, it is also intended to serve as a textbook for students in introductory courses on ‘epidemiological’ research – to which end there is a suggested hierarchy of the concepts that might reasonably be covered.

Epidemiological Research An Introduction

Author: O. S. Miettinen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400745370
Size: 25.56 MB
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Having last year published “Up from Clinical Epidemiology & EBM” and also “Epidemiological Research: Terms and Concepts,” Miettinen now – this time with collaboration from his junior colleague I. Karp – brings out this further introduction into epidemiological research; and he is now working on an introduction into clinical research, for publication next year. It evidently is Miettinen’s felt time to crystallize the basic understandings he has come to as the culmination of a half-century of concentrated effort to advance the theory of epidemiological and ‘meta-epidemiological clinical’ research. In accord with its title, this book focuses on research to develop the knowledge-base for preventive medicine, which mainly is knowledge about the causal origin –etilogy, etiogenesis – of illness. It first illustrates how wanting this knowledge still is, despite much research; and it then aims to guide the reader to more productive etiogenetic research. This book places much emphasis on the need to assure relevance by principles-guided objects design for the studies, which now remains conspicuously absent from epidemiologists’ concerns. And as for methods design, this book exposes the fallacies in the still-common ‘cohort’ and ‘case-control’ studies, defines the essentials of all etiogenetic studies, and then addresses the true options for design in this framework of shared essentials. A good deal of attention is also given to the still commonly-held, very major, twin fallacies that screening for an illness is a preventive intervention, to be studied by randomized trials, and that research on it can imply rational guidelines or recommendations regarding decisions about the screening. While Miettinen already is regarded as ‘the father of modern epidemiology,’ he now appears to have become the father also of post-modern epidemiology, where ‘epidemiology’ still means epidemiological research.

Epidemiology Principles And Practical Guidelines

Author: Jan Van den Broeck
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400759894
Size: 64.12 MB
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This textbook presents epidemiology in a practical manner, contextualized with discussions of theory and ethics, so that students and professionals from all academic backgrounds may develop a deep appreciation for how to conduct and interpret epidemiological research. Readers will develop skills to: -Search for and appraise literature critically, -Develop important research questions, -Design and implement studies to address those questions, -Perform and interpret fundamental statistical estimations and tests, -Consider the ethical implications of all stages of research, -Report findings in publications, and -Advocate for change in the public health setting. Epidemiology is and will remain a discipline in motion, and this textbook aims at reflecting this dynamism and keeping pace with its momentum. This textbook is not only a classroom tool with high utility but also an essential reference and guide for those engaging in research involving human subjects.

Concepts Of Epidemiology

Author: Raj S. Bhopal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198739680
Size: 73.96 MB
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Epidemiology is a population science that underpins health improvement and health care, by exploring and establishing the pattern, frequency, trends, and causes of a disease. Concepts of Epidemiology comprehensively describes the application of core epidemiological concepts and principles toreaders interested in population health research, policy making, health service planning, health promotion, and clinical care. The book provides an overview of study designs and practical framework for the geographical analysis of diseases, including accounting for error and bias within studies. It discusses the ways in which epidemiological data are presented, explains the distinction between association and causation, aswell as relative and absolute risks, and considers the theoretical and ethical basis of epidemiology both in the past and the future. This new edition places even greater emphasis on interactive learning. Each chapter includes learning objectives, theoretical and numerical exercises, questions and answers, a summary of the key points, and exemplar panels to illustrate the concepts and methods under consideration.Written in an accessible and engaging style, with a specialized glossary to explain and de\'1fne technical terminology, Concepts of Epidemiology is ideal for postgraduate students in epidemiology, public health, and health policy. It is also perfect for clinicians, undergraduate students andresearchers in medicine, nursing and other health disciplines who wish to improve their understanding of fundamental epidemiological concepts.

Up From Clinical Epidemiology Ebm

Author: O. S. Miettinen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048195015
Size: 18.17 MB
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‘Clinical epidemiology’ is now widely promoted and taught as a ‘basic science’ of Evidence-Based Medicine, of clinical EBM to be specific. This book, however, is mostly about that which Miettinen takes to be the necessary substitute for this now-so-fashionable subject – namely, Theory of Clinical Medicine together with its subordinate Theory of Clinical Research. The leit motif in all of this is Miettinen’s perception of the need, and opportunity, to bring major improvements into clinical medicine in this Information Age, now that theoretical progress has made feasible the development of practice-guiding Expert Systems for it. Parts of this text constitute essential reading for whoever is expected, or otherwise inclined, to study – or teach – ‘clinical epidemiology,’ and the same is true of those who set policy for the education of future clinicians; but practically all of it is essential reading for future – and current – academics in the various disciplines of clinical medicine. After all, the text is the result of a concentrated effort, over a half-century no less, to really understand both clinical and community medicine and the research to advance the knowledge-base of these. Research epidemiologists, too, will find this text interesting and instructive.

Epidemiologic Research

Author: David G. Kleinbaum
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471289852
Size: 72.71 MB
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Epidemiologic Research Principles and Quantitative Methods David G. Kleinbaum, Ph.D. Lawrence L. Kupper. Ph.D. Hal Morgenstern, Ph.D. Epidemiologic Research covers the principles and methods of planning, analysis and interpretation of epidemiologic research studies. It supplies the applied researcher with the most up-to-date methodological thought and practice. Specifically, the book focuses on quantitative (including statistical) issues arising from epidemiologic investigations, as well as on the questions of study design, measurement and validity. Epidemiologic Research emphasizes practical techniques, procedures and strategies. It presents them through a unified approach which follows the chronology of issues that arise during the investigation of an epidemic. The book’s viewpoint is multidisciplinary and equally useful to the epidemiologic researcher and to the biostatistician. Theory is supplemented by numerous examples, exercises and applications. Full solutions are given to all exercises in a separate solutions manual. Important features Thorough discussion of the methodology of epidemiologic research Stress on validity and hence on reliability Balanced approach, presenting the most important prevailing viewpoints Three chapters with applications of mathematical modeling

Concepts Of Epidemiology

Author: Raj S. Bhopal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191060143
Size: 48.50 MB
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Epidemiology is a population science that underpins health improvement and health care, by exploring and establishing the pattern, frequency, trends, and causes of a disease. Concepts of Epidemiology comprehensively describes the application of core epidemiological concepts and principles to readers interested in population health research, policy making, health service planning, health promotion, and clinical care. The book provides an overview of study designs and practical framework for the epidemiological analyses of diseases, including accounting for error and bias within studies. It discusses the ways in which epidemiological data are presented, explains the distinction between association and causation, as well as relative and absolute risks, and considers the theoretical and ethical basis of epidemiology both in the past and the future. This new edition places even greater emphasis on interactive learning. Each chapter includes learning objectives, theoretical and numerical exercises, questions and answers, a summary of the key points, and exemplar panels to illustrate the concepts and methods under consideration. Written in an accessible and engaging style, with a specialized glossary to explain and define technical terminology, Concepts of Epidemiology is ideal for postgraduate students in epidemiology, public health, and health policy. It is also perfect for clinicians, undergraduate students and researchers in medicine, nursing and other health disciplines who wish to improve their understanding of fundamental epidemiological concepts.

A History Of Epidemiologic Methods And Concepts

Author: Alfredo Morabia
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783764368180
Size: 52.73 MB
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An authoritative collection of contributions which first appeared in "SPM International Journal of Public Health", 2001. The papers focus on the historical emergence of current epidemiological methods and their relative importance at different points in time: they present the design of prospective and retrospective studies, and the concepts of bias, confounding, and interaction. This compilation of articles is complemented by an introduction and comments by Prof. Alfredo Morabia.

Quantitative Methods For Health Research

Author: Nigel Bruce
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111869337X
Size: 43.26 MB
Format: PDF
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Quantitative Research Methods for Health Professionals: A Practical Interactive Course is a superb introduction to epidemiology, biostatistics, and research methodology for the whole health care community. Drawing examples from a wide range of health research, this practical handbook covers important contemporary health research methods such as survival analysis, Cox regression, and meta-analysis, the understanding of which go beyond introductory concepts. The book includes self-assessment exercises throughout to help students explore and reflect on their understanding and a clear distinction is made between a) knowledge and concepts that all students should ensure they understand and b) those that can be pursued by students who wish to do so. The authors incorporate a program of practical exercises in SPSS using a prepared data set that helps to consolidate the theory and develop skills and confidence in data handling, analysis and interpretation.

Design Concepts In Nutritional Epidemiology

Author: Barrie M. Margetts
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191015636
Size: 54.86 MB
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In examining the relationship between nutritional exposure and disease aetiology, the importance of a carefully considered experimental design cannot be overstated. A sound experimental design involves the formulation of a clear research hypothesis and the identification of appropriate measures of exposure and outcome. It is essential that these variables can be measured with a minimum of error, whilst taking into account the effects of chance and bias, and being aware of the risk of confounding variables. The first edition of Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology presented a throrough guide to research methods in nutritional epidemiology. Since publication of the 1st edition, we now have a much better understanding of the characteristics of nutritional exposure that need to be measured in order to answer questions about diet-disease relationships. The 2nd edition has been extensively revised to include the most up-to-date methods of researching this relationship. Included are new chapters on qualitative and sociological measures, anthropometric measures, gene-nutrient interactions, and cross-sectional studies. Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology will be an essential text for nutritionists and epidemiologists, helping them in their quest to improve the quality of information upon which important public health decisions are made.