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Epigenomics

Author: Krishnarao Appasani
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139536281
Size: 18.77 MB
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Understanding mechanisms of gene regulation that are independent of the DNA sequence itself - epigenetics - has the potential to overthrow long-held views on central topics in biology, such as the biology of disease or the evolution of species. High throughput technologies reveal epigenetic mechanisms at a genome-wide level, giving rise to epigenomics as a new discipline with a distinct set of research questions and methods. Leading experts from academia, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries explain the role of epigenomics in a wide range of contexts, covering basic chromatin biology, imprinting at a genome-wide level, and epigenomics in disease biology and epidemiology. Details on assays and sequencing technology serve as an up-to-date overview of the available technological tool kit. A reliable guide for newcomers to the field as well as experienced scientists, this is a unique resource for anyone interested in applying the power of twenty-first-century genomics to epigenetic studies.

The Epigenetics Revolution

Author: Nessa Carey
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231530714
Size: 41.39 MB
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Epigenetics can potentially revolutionize our understanding of the structure and behavior of biological life on Earth. It explains why mapping an organism’s genetic code is not enough to determine how it develops or acts and shows how nurture combines with nature to engineer biological diversity. Surveying the twenty-year history of the field while also highlighting its latest findings and innovations, this volume provides a readily understandable introduction to the foundations of epigenetics. Nessa Carey, a leading epigenetics researcher, connects the field’s arguments to such diverse phenomena as how ants and queen bees control their colonies; why tortoiseshell cats are always female; why some plants need cold weather before they can flower; and how our bodies age and develop disease. Reaching beyond biology, epigenetics now informs work on drug addiction, the long-term effects of famine, and the physical and psychological consequences of childhood trauma. Carey concludes with a discussion of the future directions for this research and its ability to improve human health and well-being.

Handbook Of Epigenetics

Author: Trygve Tollefsbol
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128054778
Size: 25.34 MB
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Handbook of Epigenetics: The New Molecular and Medical Genetics, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive analysis of epigenetics, from basic biology, to clinical application. Epigenetics is considered by many to be the new genetics in that many biological phenomena are controlled, not through gene mutations, but rather through reversible and heritable epigenetic processes. These epigenetic processes range from DNA methylation to prions. The biological processes impacted by epigenetics are vast and encompass effects in lower organisms and humans that include tissue and organ regeneration, X-chromosome inactivation, stem cell differentiation, genomic imprinting, and aging. The first edition of this important work received excellent reviews; the second edition continues its comprehensive coverage adding more current research and new topics based on customer and reader reviews, including new discoveries, approved therapeutics, and clinical trials. From molecular mechanisms and epigenetic technology, to discoveries in human disease and clinical epigenetics, the nature and applications of the science is presented for those with interests ranging from the fundamental basis of epigenetics, to therapeutic interventions for epigenetic-based disorders. Timely and comprehensive collection of fully up-to-date reviews on epigenetics that are organized into one volume and written by leading figures in the field Covers the latest advances in many different areas of epigenetics, ranging from basic aspects, to technologies, to clinical medicine Written at a verbal and technical level that can be understood by scientists and college students Updated to include new epigenetic discoveries, newly approved therapeutics, and clinical trials

Epigenetics Development And Disease

Author: Tapas Kumar Kundu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400745257
Size: 21.91 MB
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Epigenetics fine-tunes the life processes dictated by DNA sequences, but also kick-starts pathophysiological processes including diabetes, AIDS and cancer. This volume tracks the latest research on epigenetics, including work on new-generation therapeutics.

Epigenetics And Dermatology

Author: Qianjin Lu
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128012722
Size: 56.81 MB
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Epigenetics and Dermatology explores the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of autoimmune-related skin diseases and skin cancer. Leading contributors cover common and uncommon skin conditions in which extensive epigenetic research has been done. They explain how environmental exposures (chemicals, drugs, sunlight, diet, stress, smoking, infection, etc.) in all stages of life (from a fetus in-utero to an elderly person) may result in epigenetic changes that lead to development of some skin diseases in life. They also discuss the possibilities of new and emergent epigenetic treatments which are gradually being adopted in management of various skin diseases. Chapters follow a conventional structure, covering fundamental biology of the disease condition, etiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, commonly available treatments, and epigenetic therapy where applicable. Discusses the basic biology of skin diseases and skin cancers induced or aggravated by aberrant epigenetic changes Evaluates how to approach autoimmune-related skin diseases from a therapeutic perspective using the wealth of emergent epigenetic clinical trials Offers a coherent and structured table of contents with basic epigenetic biology followed by discussion of the spectrum of rheumatologic through neoplastic skin diseases, finally ending with a discourse on epigenetic therapy

Chromatin Signaling And Diseases

Author: Olivier Binda
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012802609X
Size: 48.22 MB
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Chromatin Signaling and Diseases covers the molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, which govern everything from embryonic development, growth, and human pathologies associated with aging, such as cancer. This book helps researchers learn about or keep up with the quickly expanding field of chromatin signaling. After reading this book, clinicians will be more capable of explaining the mechanisms of gene expression regulation to their patients to reassure them about new drug developments that target chromatin signaling mechanisms. For example, several epigenetic drugs that act on chromatin signaling factors are in clinical trials or even approved for usage in cancer treatments, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. Other epigenetic drugs are in development to regulate various class of chromatin signaling factors. To keep up with this changing landscape, clinicians and doctors will need to stay familiar with genetic advances that translate to clinical practice, such as chromatin signaling. Although sequencing of the human genome was completed over a decade ago and its structure investigated for nearly half a century, molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression remain largely misunderstood. An emerging concept called chromatin signaling proposes that small protein domains recognize chemical modifications on the genome scaffolding histone proteins, facilitating the nucleation of enzymatic complexes at specific loci that then open up or shut down the access to genetic information, thereby regulating gene expression. The addition and removal of chemical modifications on histones, as well as the proteins that specifically recognize these, is reviewed in Chromatin Signaling and Diseases. Finally, the impact of gene expression defects associated with malfunctioning chromatin signaling is also explored. Explains molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, which governs everything from embryonic development, growth, and human pathologies associated with aging Educates clinicians and researchers about chromatin signaling, a molecular mechanism that is changing our understanding of human pathology Explores the addition and removal of chemical modifications on histones, the proteins that specifically recognize these, and the impact of gene expression defects associated with malfunctioning chromatin signaling Helps researchers learn about the quickly expanding field of chromatin signaling

Epigenetics Brain And Behavior

Author: Yves Christen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642279120
Size: 63.80 MB
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What lies at the heart of neuronal plasticity? Accumulating evidence points to epigenetics. This word originally indicated potentially heritable modifications in gene expression that do not involve changes in DNA sequence. Today this definition is much less strict, and epigenetic control is thought to include DNA methylation, histone modifications, histone variants, microRNA metabolic pathways and non-histone proteins modifications. Thus, while neuronal plasticity is rightly thought to be intimately associated to genomic control, it is critical to appreciate that there is much more to the genome than DNA sequence. Recent years have seen spectacular advances in the field of epigenetics. These have attracted the interest of researchers in many fields and evidence connecting epigenetic regulation to brain functions has been accumulating. Neurons daily convert a variety of external stimuli into rapid or long-lasting changes in gene expression. A variety of studies have centered on the molecular mechanisms implicated in epigenetic control and how these may operate in concert. It will be critical to unravel how specificity is achieved. Importantly, specific modifications seem to mediate both developmental processes and adult brain functions, such as synaptic plasticity and memory. Many aspects of the research in neurosciences and endocrinology during the upcoming decade will be dominated by the deciphering of epigenetic control. This book constitutes a compendium of the most updated views in the field.

Human Epigenomics

Author: Carsten Carlberg
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811076146
Size: 60.84 MB
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The term epigenetics describes regulatory and information storing mechanisms of specific genes that do not involve any change of their DNA sequence. Epigenetics is closely related to the extensively folded state, in which the genome is packaged, known as chromatin. New genomic tools nowadays allow the genome-wide assessment of, for example, chromatin states and DNA modifications, and led to the discovery of unexpected new epigenetic principles, such as epigenomic memory. This was the start of the field of epigenomics, the relation of which to human health and disease is discussed in this textbook. This book aims to summarize, in a condensed form, the role of epigenomics in defining chromatin states that are representative of active genes (euchromatin) and repressed genes (heterochromatin). Moreover, this book discusses the principles of gene regulation, chromatin stability, genomic imprinting and the reversibility of DNA methylation and histone modifications. This information should enable a better understanding of cell type identities and will provide new directions for studies of, for example, cellular reprograming, the response of chromatin to environmental signals and epigenetic therapies that can improve or restore human health. In order to facilitate the latter, we favor a high figure-to-text ratio following the rule “a picture tells more than thousand words”. The content of the book is based on the lecture course “Molecular Medicine and Genetics” that is given by one of us (C. Carlberg) in different forms since 2002 at the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio. Thematically, this book is located between our textbooks “Mechanisms of Gene Regulation” (ISBN 978-94-017-7741-4) and “Nutrigenomics” (ISBN 978-3-319-30415-1), studying of which may also be interesting to our readers. The book is sub-divided into three sections and 13 chapters. Following the Introduction (section A), section B will explain the molecular basis of epigenomics, while section C will provide examples for the impact of epigenomics in human health and disease. The lecture course is primarily designed for Master level students of biomedicine, but is also frequented by PhD students as well as by students of other bioscience disciplines. Besides its value as a textbook, Human Epigenomics will be a useful reference for individuals working in biomedicine.

Cancer Epigenetics

Author: Antonio Giordano
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118005736
Size: 36.26 MB
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Cancer Epigenetics: Biomolecular Therapeutics in Human Cancer is the only resource to focus on biomolecular approaches to cancer therapy. Its presentation of the latest research in cancer biology reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field and aims to facilitate collaboration between the basic, translational, and clinical sciences.

Optogenetics

Author: Krishnarao Appasani
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107053013
Size: 68.77 MB
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Discovered little more than a decade ago, optogenetics - a revolutionary technique combining genetic and optical methods to observe and control the function of neurons - is now a widely used research tool. Optogenetics-driven research has led to insights into Parkinson's disease and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. With contributions from leaders and innovators from both academia and industry, this volume explores the discovery and application of optogenetics, from the basic science to its potential clinical use. Chapters cover a range of optogenetics applications, including for brain circuits, plasticity, memory, learning, sleep, vision and neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Providing authoritative coverage of the huge potential that optogenetics research carries, this is an ideal resource for researchers and graduate students, as well as for those working in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries and in a clinical setting.