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Epistemology Versus Ontology

Author: P. Dybjer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400744358
Size: 66.37 MB
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This book brings together philosophers, mathematicians and logicians to penetrate important problems in the philosophy and foundations of mathematics. In philosophy, one has been concerned with the opposition between constructivism and classical mathematics and the different ontological and epistemological views that are reflected in this opposition. The dominant foundational framework for current mathematics is classical logic and set theory with the axiom of choice (ZFC). This framework is, however, laden with philosophical difficulties. One important alternative foundational programme that is actively pursued today is predicativistic constructivism based on Martin-Löf type theory. Associated philosophical foundations are meaning theories in the tradition of Wittgenstein, Dummett, Prawitz and Martin-Löf. What is the relation between proof-theoretical semantics in the tradition of Gentzen, Prawitz, and Martin-Löf and Wittgensteinian or other accounts of meaning-as-use? What can proof-theoretical analyses tell us about the scope and limits of constructive and predicative mathematics?

The Natural Philosophy Of Emanuel Swedenborg

Author: David Duner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400745605
Size: 80.87 MB
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Although Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772) is commonly known for his spiritual philosophy, his early career was focused unnatural science. During this period, Swedenborg thought of the world was like a gigantic machine, following the laws of mechanics and geometry. This volume analyzes this mechanistic worldview from the cognitive perspective, by means of a study of the metaphors in Swedenborg’s texts. The author argues that these conceptual metaphors are vital skills of the creative mind and scientific thinking, used to create visual analogies and abstract ideas. This means that Swedenborg’s mechanistic and geometrical worldview, allowed him to perceive the world as mechanical and geometrical. Swedenborg thought ”with” books and pens. The reading gave him associations and clues, forced him to interpret, and gave him material for his intellectual development.

Logic Epistemology And The Unity Of Science

Author: Shahid Rahman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402028083
Size: 27.52 MB
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The first volume in this new series explores, through extensive co-operation, new ways of achieving the integration of science in all its diversity. The book offers essays from important and influential philosophers in contemporary philosophy, discussing a range of topics from philosophy of science to epistemology, philosophy of logic and game theoretical approaches. It will be of interest to philosophers, computer scientists and all others interested in the scientific rationality.

Rigor And Structure

Author: John P. Burgess
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198722222
Size: 79.79 MB
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John P. Burgess presents an illuminating study of the nature of mathematical rigour and of mathematical structure, and above all of the relation between them. He considers recent developments in the field including experimental mathematics and computerised formal proofs, and surveys many historical developments in mathematics, philosophy, and logic.

Computing Nature

Author: Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642372252
Size: 26.82 MB
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This book is about nature considered as the totality of physical existence, the universe, and our present day attempts to understand it. If we see the universe as a network of networks of computational processes at many different levels of organization, what can we learn about physics, biology, cognition, social systems, and ecology expressed through interacting networks of elementary particles, atoms, molecules, cells, (and especially neurons when it comes to understanding of cognition and intelligence), organs, organisms and their ecologies? Regarding our computational models of natural phenomena Feynman famously wondered: “Why should it take an infinite amount of logic to figure out what one tiny piece of space/time is going to do?” Phenomena themselves occur so quickly and automatically in nature. Can we learn how to harness nature’s computational power as we harness its energy and materials? This volume includes a selection of contributions from the Symposium on Natural Computing/Unconventional Computing and Its Philosophical Significance, organized during the AISB/IACAP World Congress 2012, held in Birmingham, UK, on July 2-6, on the occasion of the centenary of Alan Turing’s birth. In this book, leading researchers investigated questions of computing nature by exploring various facets of computation as we find it in nature: relationships between different levels of computation, cognition with learning and intelligence, mathematical background, relationships to classical Turing computation and Turing’s ideas about computing nature - unorganized machines and morphogenesis. It addresses questions of information, representation and computation, interaction as communication, concurrency and agent models; in short this book presents natural computing and unconventional computing as extension of the idea of computation as symbol manipulation.

Updating To Remain The Same

Author: Wendy Hui Kyong Chun
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262333783
Size: 43.47 MB
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New media -- we are told -- exist at the bleeding edge of obsolescence. We thus forever try to catch up, updating to remain the same. Meanwhile, analytic, creative, and commercial efforts focus exclusively on the next big thing: figuring out what will spread and who will spread it the fastest. But what do we miss in this constant push to the future? In Updating to Remain the Same, Wendy Hui Kyong Chun suggests another approach, arguing that our media matter most when they seem not to matter at all -- when they have moved from "new" to habitual. Smart phones, for example, no longer amaze, but they increasingly structure and monitor our lives. Through habits, Chun says, new media become embedded in our lives -- indeed, we become our machines: we stream, update, capture, upload, link, save, trash, and troll. Chun links habits to the rise of networks as the defining concept of our era. Networks have been central to the emergence of neoliberalism, replacing "society" with groupings of individuals and connectable "YOUS." (For isn't "new media" actually "NYOU media"?) Habit is central to the inversion of privacy and publicity that drives neoliberalism and networks. Why do we view our networked devices as "personal" when they are so chatty and promiscuous? What would happen, Chun asks, if, rather than pushing for privacy that is no privacy, we demanded public rights -- the right to be exposed, to take risks and to be in public and not be attacked?

The Shapes Of Knowledge From The Renaissance To The Enlightenment

Author: D.R. Kelley
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401132380
Size: 57.64 MB
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The original idea for a conference on the "shapes of knowledge" dates back over ten years to conversations with the late Charles Schmitt of the Warburg Institute. What happened to the classifications of the sciences between the time of the medieval Studium and that of the French Encyclopedie is a complex and highly abstract question; but posing it is an effective way of mapping and evaluating long term intellectual changes, especially those arising from the impact of humanist scholarship, the new science of the seventeenth century, and attempts to evaluate, to apply, to reconcile, and to institutionalize these rival and interacting traditions. Yet such patterns and transformations cannot be well understood from the heights of the general history of ideas. Within the ~eneral framework of the organization of knowledge the map must be filled in by particular explorations and soundings, and our project called for a conference that would combine some encyclopedic (as well as interdisciplinary and inter national) breadth with scholarly and technical depth.

Choosing The Better Part

Author: M.P. de Baar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400901399
Size: 43.81 MB
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Anna Maria van Schurman was in more than one aspect an unconventional woman in her own lifetime. As a gifted scholar in many foreign and ancient languages, as well as in philosophy and theology, she corresponded with other learned men and women all over Europe. She achieved international renown for her own defence of scholarly activity of women. Life and work of this Dutch femme savante of the 17th Century has thus far been studied by theologians, philosophers, literary scholars, historians, pedagogues and art historians, each concentrating on specific aspects of Van Schurman's biography or work. A rather fragmented image of this scholar was the result. This interdependent collection of essays describes the life and work of Anna Maria van Schurman from an interdisciplinary - or rather multidisciplinary - approach and will outline a more integrated yet at the same time subtly differentiated picture. Nine contributions - from the disciplines of philosophy, theology, Dutch language and literature, intellectual and art history, and women's studies - partly based on new source material, shed light on Van Schurman's ideas on erudition and femininity, ethics and philosophy, as well as on her religious beliefs, within the context of the early modern intellectual community to which she belonged. Audience: This collection of essays will therefore command the interest not only of historians, but also of scholars and students in theology, philosophy, art history, and women's studies.

Reasoning

Author: Anthony Simon Laden
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199606196
Size: 47.60 MB
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Anthony Simon Laden explores the kind of reasoning we engage in when we live together: when we are responsive to others and neither commanding nor deferring to them. He argues for a new, social picture of the activity of reasoning, in which reasoning is a species of conversation—social, ongoing, and governed by a set of characteristic norms.

The Logical Foundations Of Cognition

Author: John Macnamara
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195092163
Size: 44.60 MB
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Authored by an outstanding collection of leading theorists and researchers from a range of disciplines, this book details the inadequacies of classical logic in its handling of ordinary language and reveals the prospects for applying a synthesis of logic and psychology to cognitive psychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language.