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Estimating Impact

Author: Alexander Kott
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441962355
Size: 12.65 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Sociological theories of crime include: theories of strain blame crime on personal stressors; theories of social learning blame crime on its social rewards, and see crime more as an institution in conflict with other institutions rather than as in- vidual deviance; and theories of control look at crime as natural and rewarding, and explore the formation of institutions that control crime. Theorists of corruption generally agree that corruption is an expression of the Patron–Client relationship in which a person with access to resources trades resources with kin and members of the community in exchange for loyalty. Some approaches to modeling crime and corruption do not involve an explicit simulation: rule based systems; Bayesian networks; game theoretic approaches, often based on rational choice theory; and Neoclassical Econometrics, a rational choice-based approach. Simulation-based approaches take into account greater complexities of interacting parts of social phenomena. These include fuzzy cognitive maps and fuzzy rule sets that may incorporate feedback; and agent-based simulation, which can go a step farther by computing new social structures not previously identified in theory. The latter include cognitive agent models, in which agents learn how to perceive their en- ronment and act upon the perceptions of their individual experiences; and reactive agent simulation, which, while less capable than cognitive-agent simulation, is adequate for testing a policy’s effects with existing societal structures. For example, NNL is a cognitive agent model based on the REPAST Simphony toolkit.

Advances In Cross Cultural Decision Making

Author: Mark Hoffman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319607472
Size: 65.31 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book reports on the latest advances in understanding cross-cultural decision and human cognition with respect to various cultural constructs, such as geographical, historical, sociological, and organizational cultures. It addresses researchers, scholars, and industry practitioners from diverse fields, including sociology, linguistics, business, military science, psychology, human factors research, neuroscience, and education. The book covers a wealth of topics, including: analyses of historical events and intercultural competence; commercial applications of social-cultural science; the study of decision-making similarities (and differences) across cultures; cultural behavioral modeling and simulation technology; and social networks and studies on group communication alike. It also reports on real-world case studies relevant to cross-cultural decision-making. The book’s main goal is to combine studies from other relevant disciplines such as causal analysis in complex environments, team decision making and social changes to develop a more holistic understanding of the decisions that people, groups, and societies make, so as to improve our ability to forecast and plan for the future. Based on the AHFE 2017 International Conference on Cross-Cultural Decision Making (CCDM), held on July 17–21, 2017, in Los Angeles, California, USA, this book offers a multidisciplinary view on the impact of culture on people’s cognition and behavior, and a timely reference guide to new applications and future challenges.

Advances In Culturally Aware Intelligent Systems And In Cross Cultural Psychological Studies

Author: Colette Faucher
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319670247
Size: 11.72 MB
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This book offers valuable new insights into the design of culturally-aware systems. In its first part, it is devoted to presenting selected Culturally-Aware Intelligent Systems devised in the field of Artificial Intelligence and its second part consists of two sub-parts that offer a source of inspiration for building modelizations of Culture and of its influence on the human mind and behavior, to be used in new Culturally-Aware Intelligent Systems. Those sub-parts present the results of experiments conducted in two fields that study Culture and its influence on the human mind’s functions: Cultural Neuroscience and Cross-Cultural Psychology. In this era of globalization, people from different countries and cultures have the opportunity to interact directly or indirectly in a wide variety of contexts. Despite differences in their ways of thinking and reasoning, their behaviors, their values, lifestyles, customs and habits, languages, religions – in a word, their cultures – they must be able to collaborate on projects, to understand each other’s views, to communicate in such a way that they don’t offend each other, to anticipate the effects of their actions on others, and so on. As such, it is of primary importance to understand how culture affects people’s mental activities, such as perception, interpretation, reasoning, emotion and behavior, in order to anticipate possible misunderstandings due to differences in handling the same situation, and to try and resolve them. Artificial Intelligence, and more specifically, the field of Intelligent Systems design, aims at building systems that mimic the behavior of human beings in order to complete tasks more efficiently than humans could by themselves. Consequently, in the last decade, experts and scholars in the field of Intelligent Systems have been increasingly tackling the notion of cultural awareness. A Culturally-Aware Intelligent System can be defined as a system where Culture-related or, more generally, socio-cultural information is modeled and used to design the human-machine interface, or to provide support with the task carried out by the system, be it reasoning, simulation or any other task involving cultural knowledge.

Handbook Of Computational Approaches To Counterterrorism

Author: V.S. Subrahmanian
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461453119
Size: 43.26 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Terrorist groups throughout the world have been studied primarily through the use of social science methods. However, major advances in IT during the past decade have led to significant new ways of studying terrorist groups, making forecasts, learning models of their behaviour, and shaping policies about their behaviour. Handbook of Computational Approaches to Counterterrorism provides the first in-depth look at how advanced mathematics and modern computing technology is shaping the study of terrorist groups. This book includes contributions from world experts in the field, and presents extensive information on terrorism data sets, new ways of building such data sets in real-time using text analytics, introduces the mathematics and computational approaches to understand terror group behaviour, analyzes terror networks, forecasts terror group behaviour, and shapes policies against terrorist groups. Auxiliary information will be posted on the book’s website. This book targets defence analysts, counter terror analysts, computer scientists, mathematicians, political scientists, psychologists, and researchers from the wide variety of fields engaged in counter-terrorism research. Advanced-level students in computer science, mathematics and social sciences will also find this book useful.

Adversarial Reasoning

Author: Alexander Kott
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420011014
Size: 20.68 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The rising tide of threats, from financial cybercrime to asymmetric military conflicts, demands greater sophistication in tools and techniques of law enforcement, commercial and domestic security professionals, and terrorism prevention. Concentrating on computational solutions to determine or anticipate an adversary's intent, Adversarial Reasoning: Computational Approaches to Reading the Opponent's Mind discusses the technologies for opponent strategy prediction, plan recognition, deception discovery and planning, and strategy formulation that not only applies to security issues but also to game industry and business transactions. Addressing a broad range of practical problems, including military planning and command, military and foreign intelligence, antiterrorism, network security, as well as simulation and training systems, this reference presents an overview of each problem and then explores various approaches and applications to understand the minds and negate the actions of your opponents. The techniques discussed originate from a variety of disciplines such as stochastic processes, artificial intelligence planning, cognitive modeling, robotics and agent theory, robust control, game theory, and machine learning, among others. The beginning chapters outline the key concepts related to discovering the opponent's intent and plans while the later chapters journey into mathematical methods for counterdeception. The final chapters employ a range of techniques, including reinforcement learning within a stochastic dynamic games context to devise strategies that combat opponents. By answering specific questions on how to create practical applications that require elements of adversarial reasoning while also exploring theoretical developments, Adversarial Reasoning: Computational Approaches to Reading the Opponent's Mind is beneficial for practitioners as well as researchers.

The Security Economy

Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
ISBN: 9264107746
Size: 55.74 MB
Format: PDF
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With the market for security goods and services having expanded rapidly since 9/11, this study examines the potential costs of major disruptions, the trade-offs between tighter security and economic efficiency, and the implications of tighter security for privacy and other democratic liberties.

The Transport System And Transport Policy

Author: Bert van Wee
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857936905
Size: 76.58 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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ÔThis very interesting book provides an excellent multi-disciplinary introduction into the functioning of transport systems and the interaction with their environments.Õ Ð Erik Verhoef, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands ÔThe editors of this important book have clearly identified that few writings on transport treat the transport system as a whole. Implicit in this is a need for a genuinely multidisciplinary approach. An impressive list of contributors ensures that the book draws on the latest research whilst providing new insights into some of the key challenges facing transport students and researchers, transport providers and policy makers.Õ Ð Roger Vickerman, University of Kent, UK ÔSince ancient times transportation has brought our world together. But the need for connectivity and accessibility in a spatially differentiated world has prompted the emergence of very complex transportation systems. This book offers a fresh and operational contribution to a better understanding of the complexity and manageability of a mobile world, by addressing in a balanced way both conceptual and applied or policy aspects of modern transportation systems.Õ Ð Peter Nijkamp, Free University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands Transport impacts on people and businesses in many different ways, and presents some of the key problems that decision-makers need to address. This comprehensive textbook introduces the transport system in a holistic and multidisciplinary way, bringing together the myriad components of transport. This textbook is written for an international readership of undergraduate and postgraduate students in transport and related subjects, as well as for professionals and policy decision-makers across both public and private sectors. Key features include: ¥ Discussion of the importance of transport accessibility and the impacts of transport on the environment and safety ¥ Policy issues relating to all of the discussed issues and prescribed future options. ¥ Transport evaluation methods and modelling approaches. ¥ Examples to highlight the linkages between components of the transport system Ð for example infrastructures, land-use, vehicle technologies Ð and the relevance of these linkages for decision making.

Cyber Defense And Situational Awareness

Author: Alexander Kott
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319113917
Size: 37.82 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for this book. Situational awareness is exceptionally prominent in the field of cyber defense. It involves science, technology and practice of perception, comprehension and projection of events and entities in cyber space. Chapters discuss the difficulties of achieving cyber situational awareness – along with approaches to overcoming the difficulties - in the relatively young field of cyber defense where key phenomena are so unlike the more conventional physical world. Cyber Defense and Situational Awareness is designed as a reference for practitioners of cyber security and developers of technology solutions for cyber defenders. Advanced-level students and researchers focused on security of computer networks will also find this book a valuable resource.