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Eulerian Numbers

Author: T. Kyle Petersen
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 1493930915
Size: 76.31 MB
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This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, which survey more advanced topics, including some open problems in combinatorial topology. This textbook will serve a resource for experts in the field as well as for graduate students and others hoping to learn about these topics for the first time.​

Topics In Hyperplane Arrangements

Author: Marcelo Aguiar
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 1470437112
Size: 31.91 MB
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This monograph studies the interplay between various algebraic, geometric and combinatorial aspects of real hyperplane arrangements. It provides a careful, organized and unified treatment of several recent developments in the field, and brings forth many new ideas and results. It has two parts, each divided into eight chapters, and five appendices with background material. Part I gives a detailed discussion on faces, flats, chambers, cones, gallery intervals, lunes and other geometric notions associated with arrangements. The Tits monoid plays a central role. Another important object is the category of lunes which generalizes the classical associative operad. Also discussed are the descent and lune identities, distance functions on chambers, and the combinatorics of the braid arrangement and related examples. Part II studies the structure and representation theory of the Tits algebra of an arrangement. It gives a detailed analysis of idempotents and Peirce decompositions, and connects them to the classical theory of Eulerian idempotents. It introduces the space of Lie elements of an arrangement which generalizes the classical Lie operad. This space is the last nonzero power of the radical of the Tits algebra. It is also the socle of the left ideal of chambers and of the right ideal of Zie elements. Zie elements generalize the classical Lie idempotents. They include Dynkin elements associated to generic half-spaces which generalize the classical Dynkin idempotent. Another important object is the lune-incidence algebra which marks the beginning of noncommutative Möbius theory. These ideas are also brought upon the study of the Solomon descent algebra. The monograph is written with clarity and in sufficient detail to make it accessible to graduate students. It can also serve as a useful reference to experts.

Combinatorics Of Set Partitions

Author: Toufik Mansour
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439863334
Size: 32.18 MB
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Focusing on a very active area of mathematical research in the last decade, Combinatorics of Set Partitions presents methods used in the combinatorics of pattern avoidance and pattern enumeration in set partitions. Designed for students and researchers in discrete mathematics, the book is a one-stop reference on the results and research activities of set partitions from 1500 A.D. to today. Each chapter gives historical perspectives and contrasts different approaches, including generating functions, kernel method, block decomposition method, generating tree, and Wilf equivalences. Methods and definitions are illustrated with worked examples and MapleTM code. End-of-chapter problems often draw on data from published papers and the author’s extensive research in this field. The text also explores research directions that extend the results discussed. C++ programs and output tables are listed in the appendices and available for download on the author’s web page.

Applied Number Theory

Author: Harald Niederreiter
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319223216
Size: 26.80 MB
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This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas. Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc. Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters 2-5 and offer a glimpse of advanced results that are presented without proofs and require more advanced mathematical skills. In the last chapter they review several further applications of number theory, ranging from check-digit systems to quantum computation and the organization of raster-graphics memory. Upper-level undergraduates, graduates and researchers in the field of number theory will find this book to be a valuable resource.

Advanced Mathematics For Applications

Author: Andrea Prosperetti
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521735872
Size: 51.20 MB
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The partial differential equations that govern scalar and vector fields are the very language used to model a variety of phenomena in solid mechanics, fluid flow, acoustics, heat transfer, electromagnetism and many others. A knowledge of the main equations and of the methods for analyzing them is therefore essential to every working physical scientist and engineer. Andrea Prosperetti draws on many years' research experience to produce a guide to a wide variety of methods, ranging from classical Fourier-type series through to the theory of distributions and basic functional analysis. Theorems are stated precisely and their meaning explained, though proofs are mostly only sketched, with comments and examples being given more prominence. The book structure does not require sequential reading: each chapter is self-contained and users can fashion their own path through the material. Topics are first introduced in the context of applications, and later complemented by a more thorough presentation.

Bernoulli Numbers And Zeta Functions

Author: Tsuneo Arakawa
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431549196
Size: 63.71 MB
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Two major subjects are treated in this book. The main one is the theory of Bernoulli numbers and the other is the theory of zeta functions. Historically, Bernoulli numbers were introduced to give formulas for the sums of powers of consecutive integers. The real reason that they are indispensable for number theory, however, lies in the fact that special values of the Riemann zeta function can be written by using Bernoulli numbers. This leads to more advanced topics, a number of which are treated in this book: Historical remarks on Bernoulli numbers and the formula for the sum of powers of consecutive integers; a formula for Bernoulli numbers by Stirling numbers; the Clausen–von Staudt theorem on the denominators of Bernoulli numbers; Kummer's congruence between Bernoulli numbers and a related theory of p-adic measures; the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula; the functional equation of the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet L functions, and their special values at suitable integers; various formulas of exponential sums expressed by generalized Bernoulli numbers; the relation between ideal classes of orders of quadratic fields and equivalence classes of binary quadratic forms; class number formula for positive definite binary quadratic forms; congruences between some class numbers and Bernoulli numbers; simple zeta functions of prehomogeneous vector spaces; Hurwitz numbers; Barnes multiple zeta functions and their special values; the functional equation of the doub le zeta functions; and poly-Bernoulli numbers. An appendix by Don Zagier on curious and exotic identities for Bernoulli numbers is also supplied. This book will be enjoyable both for amateurs and for professional researchers. Because the logical relations between the chapters are loosely connected, readers can start with any chapter depending on their interests. The expositions of the topics are not always typical, and some parts are completely new.

Counting With Symmetric Functions

Author: Jeffrey Remmel
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3319236180
Size: 17.54 MB
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This monograph provides a self-contained introduction to symmetric functions and their use in enumerative combinatorics. It is the first book to explore many of the methods and results that the authors present. Numerous exercises are included throughout, along with full solutions, to illustrate concepts and also highlight many interesting mathematical ideas. The text begins by introducing fundamental combinatorial objects such as permutations and integer partitions, as well as generating functions. Symmetric functions are considered in the next chapter, with a unique emphasis on the combinatorics of the transition matrices between bases of symmetric functions. Chapter 3 uses this introductory material to describe how to find an assortment of generating functions for permutation statistics, and then these techniques are extended to find generating functions for a variety of objects in Chapter 4. The next two chapters present the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm and a method for proving Pólya’s enumeration theorem using symmetric functions. Chapters 7 and 8 are more specialized than the preceding ones, covering consecutive pattern matches in permutations, words, cycles, and alternating permutations and introducing the reciprocity method as a way to define ring homomorphisms with desirable properties. Counting with Symmetric Functions will appeal to graduate students and researchers in mathematics or related subjects who are interested in counting methods, generating functions, or symmetric functions. The unique approach taken and results and exercises explored by the authors make it an important contribution to the mathematical literature.

Playing Around Resonance

Author: Alessandro Fonda
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3319470906
Size: 41.75 MB
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This book provides an up-to-date description of the methods needed to face the existence of solutions to some nonlinear boundary value problems. All important and interesting aspects of the theory of periodic solutions of ordinary differential equations related to the physical and mathematical question of resonance are treated. The author has chosen as a model example the periodic problem for a second order scalar differential equation. In a paedagogical style the author takes the reader step by step from the basics to the most advanced existence results in the field.

Real Analysis

Author: Emmanuele DiBenedetto
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 1493940058
Size: 69.35 MB
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The second edition of this classic textbook presents a rigorous and self-contained introduction to real analysis with the goal of providing a solid foundation for future coursework and research in applied mathematics. Written in a clear and concise style, it covers all of the necessary subjects as well as those often absent from standard introductory texts. Each chapter features a “Problems and Complements” section that includes additional material that briefly expands on certain topics within the chapter and numerous exercises for practicing the key concepts. The first eight chapters explore all of the basic topics for training in real analysis, beginning with a review of countable sets before moving on to detailed discussions of measure theory, Lebesgue integration, Banach spaces, functional analysis, and weakly differentiable functions. More topical applications are discussed in the remaining chapters, such as maximal functions, functions of bounded mean oscillation, rearrangements, potential theory, and the theory of Sobolev functions. This second edition has been completely revised and updated and contains a variety of new content and expanded coverage of key topics, such as new exercises on the calculus of distributions, a proof of the Riesz convolution, Steiner symmetrization, and embedding theorems for functions in Sobolev spaces. Ideal for either classroom use or self-study, Real Analysis is an excellent textbook both for students discovering real analysis for the first time and for mathematicians and researchers looking for a useful resource for reference or review. Praise for the First Edition: “[This book] will be extremely useful as a text. There is certainly enough material for a year-long graduate course, but judicious selection would make it possible to use this most appealing book in a one-semester course for well-prepared students.” —Mathematical Reviews

An Introduction To Lagrangian Mechanics

Author: Alain J Brizard
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9814623644
Size: 25.37 MB
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An Introduction to Lagrangian Mechanics begins with a proper historical perspective on the Lagrangian method by presenting Fermat's Principle of Least Time (as an introduction to the Calculus of Variations) as well as the principles of Maupertuis, Jacobi, and d'Alembert that preceded Hamilton's formulation of the Principle of Least Action, from which the Euler–Lagrange equations of motion are derived. Other additional topics not traditionally presented in undergraduate textbooks include the treatment of constraint forces in Lagrangian Mechanics; Routh's procedure for Lagrangian systems with symmetries; the art of numerical analysis for physical systems; variational formulations for several continuous Lagrangian systems; an introduction to elliptic functions with applications in Classical Mechanics; and Noncanonical Hamiltonian Mechanics and perturbation theory. The Second Edition includes a larger selection of examples and problems (with hints) in each chapter and continues the strong emphasis of the First Edition on the development and application of mathematical methods (mostly calculus) to the solution of problems in Classical Mechanics. New material has been added to most chapters. For example, a new derivation of the Noether theorem for discrete Lagrangian systems is given and a modified Rutherford scattering problem is solved exactly to show that the total scattering cross section associated with a confined potential (i.e., which vanishes beyond a certain radius) yields the hard-sphere result. The Frenet-Serret formulas for the Coriolis-corrected projectile motion are presented, where the Frenet-Serret torsion is shown to be directly related to the Coriolis deflection, and a new treatment of the sleeping-top problem is given.