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Eurekas And Euphorias

Author: Walter Gratzer
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780198609407
Size: 54.27 MB
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A collection of scientific anecdotes from the past two thousand years offers insight into the personalities, friendships, rivalries, deceptions, hoaxes, tragedies, and mistakes that marked the history of science. (Science & Mathematics)

Terrors Of The Table

Author: Walter Gratzer
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191578625
Size: 42.67 MB
Format: PDF
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Terrors of the Table is an absorbing account of the struggle to find the necessary ingredients of a healthy diet, and the fads and quackery that have always waylaid the unwary and the foolish when it comes to the matter of food and health. Walter Gratzer tells the tale of nutrition's heroes, heroines and charlatans with characteristic crispness and verve. We find an array of colourful personalities, from the distinguished but quarrelsome Liebig, to the enterprising Lydia Pinkham. But we also find the slow recognition that the lack of vital ingredients can cause terrible illnesses - scurvy, rickets, beriberi. These diseases stalked the poor in the West even into the 20th century, and scandalously remain in poorer parts of the world today. The narrative stretches from classical times to the modern day and gives a valuable historical perspective to our current understanding. It also highlights some of the problems faced by the developed world regarding health today - in particular diabetes and obesity. And despite our far greater understanding of what our body needs, there are still many who would fall for fads and fancy diets - some dangerous, others just daft. Of course, the story of nutrition does not end there. We have discovered the key vitamins and minerals our body needs, but research continues on the connections between diet, health and disease. The body's biochemistry is complex, and there are no easy answers, no magic formula, that applies to all individuals. The safest and most rational course would seem to be a sensible, moderate, and varied diet, not forgetting that 'a little of what you fancy does you good'.

The Harmonious Universe

Author: Keith James Laidler
Publisher: Prometheus Books
ISBN: 1615925635
Size: 60.31 MB
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From quarks to quasars, this stimulating survey of the main branches of science provides lay readers with a broad scientific understanding of our fascinating universe. Award-winning scientist and popular science writer Keith Laidler explains the major facts, principles, and theories of physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy. He not only delves into the specifics of each discipline but also shows how they all complement one another, creating a harmonious picture of a completely integrated universe. Along the way Laidler interjects entertaining facts about the larger-than-life figures who have advanced science throughout history. The reader thus learns about both science and the history of science in a lively presentation that emphasizes the human dimension of the vast scientific enterprise.Among the many interesting people and topics discussed are Isaac Newton and the nature of light, Benjamin Franklin and the investigation of electricity, James Clerk Maxwell's demon and the laws of probability, James Watt and the steam engine, Max Planck and black-body radiation, James Rutherford and the nuclear atom, Albert Einstein and relativity, Lord Kelvin and the earth's cooling, Gregor Mendel and genes, Charles Darwin and the origin of species, Edward Lorenz and the butterfly effect, and many more. Looking at our universe as a gigantic system of worlds within worlds, Laidler reviews individually the subatomic world, the microscopic world, the electromagnetic world, the world of energy in all its various forms, our world (Earth) in the context of the larger universe, and the world of our living environment. He concludes with a chapter on methods of inquiry and kinds of truth.More than a primer yet less complex than a textbook, The Harmonious Universe will entertain, educate, and inspire an appreciation for science in all its many facets.Keith J. Laidler, Ph.D. (Ottawa, Ontario), is a professor emeritus of chemistry at the University of Ottawa and the author of twelve books, including Science and Sensibility (Prometheus Books, 2003) and To Light Such a Candle (Oxford University Press, 1998). He has received numerous awards including the American Chemical Society's prestigious Dexter Award for outstanding contributions to the history of chemistry.

Science And Sensibility

Author: Keith James Laidler
Publisher: Prometheus Books
ISBN: 1615927034
Size: 61.19 MB
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In Science and Sensibility, Keith J. Laidler offers an expert look at the fundamentals underlying modern scientific thought. Replete with enjoyable anecdotes, his treatise splendidly illustrates the enormous progress humankind has made in understanding the physical world. It provides a valuable overview of current methods and achievements in science. - Paul Halpern, Ph.D., author of The Great Beyond: Higher Dimensions, Parallel Universes and the Extraordinary Search for a Theory of EverythingHere is a grand tour de force of the universe - from elementary particles to quasars and black holes, from the Big Bang to the Double Helix, from plate tectonics to the theory of evolution. Professor Laidler masterfully guides you through the thorniest issues of modern science, while not shying away from many controversial issues that make the daily news. Highly informative! - Eli Maor, author of To Infinity and Beyond, e: the Story of a Number, Trigonometric Delights, and Venus in TransitScience has produced the vast information explosion that barrages us daily with data both trivial and profound. Though people seem eager to acquire more and more information, few understand what to do with it or how to integrate it into a coherent worldview. Paradoxically, as information has increased, knowledge has declined.This book is designed to provide a thorough grounding in science literacy for the general lay reader. Acclaimed science writer and chemistry professor Keith J. Laidler reviews the major contributions of the different branches of science - including biology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, and geology - and shows how they all lead to a unified conception of our place in the universe. He further asserts that by lifting the great veil of mystery through science, we can more fully appreciate the beauty of the universe. Although much still remains to be discovered, Laidler stresses that evidence from every field of science supports a consensus view, an elegantly logical and self-consistent picture of the formation and development of the universe and of life within it.Even more important than understanding the basic features of this scientific worldview is knowing the method by which science arrives at its conclusions. He points out that this approach to ascertaining the truth is used by judges in courts of law and by scholars in academic fields of the humanities, as well as by scientists. By learning to weigh sound evidence in an objective and unbiased fashion, we can selectively judge the information that surrounds us and integrate it into a scientific understanding, while still retaining our sense of wonder.This elegantly written and lucid explanation of science in contemporary life will not only spark an interest into the wonders of many fascinating scientific disciplines but will stimulate readers to think more critically and scientifically.Keith J. Laidler (1916 - 2003), Ph.D., was professor emeritus of chemistry at the University of Ottawa and the author of eleven books, including To Light Such a Candle (Oxford University Press, 1998). He received numerous awards including the American Chemical Society's prestigious Dexter Award for outstanding contributions to the history of chemistry.

The Piltdown Forgery

Author: J. S. Weiner
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198607809
Size: 58.69 MB
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For decades the remains of fossils found in Piltdown, England were believed to come from a "missing link," a creature with a human cranium and an ape's jaw. Dr. Weiner shows how he discovered the truth about these remains, and went on to expose one of the world's greatest scientific frauds.

Tasty

Author: John McQuaid
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1451685025
Size: 57.54 MB
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“A fascinating blend of culinary history and the science of taste” (Publishers Weekly, starred review), from the first bite taken by our ancestors to ongoing scientific advances in taste and today’s “foodie” revolution. Can’t resist the creamy smoothness of butter? Blame Darwinian natural selection. Crave the immediate zing of sweets? They bathe your brain in a seductive high. Enjoy the savory flavors of grilled meat? So did your ancestor Homo erectus. Coffee? You had to overcome your hardwired aversion to its hint of bitterness and learn to like it. Taste is a whole-body experience, and breakthroughs in genetics and microbiology are casting light not only on the experience of french fries and foie gras, but on the mysterious interplay of body, brain, and mind. Reporting from kitchens, supermarkets, farms, restaurants, huge food corporations, and science labs, Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist John McQuaid tells the story of the still-emerging concept of flavor and how our sense of taste will evolve in the coming decades. Tasty explains why children have bizarre and stubborn tastes, how the invention of cooking changed our brains and physiology, why artificial sweeteners never taste quite right, why name brands really do taste better, how a 100,000-year-old walkabout by early humans is responsible for George H.W. Bush’s broccoli-hatred, why “supertasters” like salt, and why “nontasters” are more likely to be alcoholics. “A fascinating story with a beginning some half a billion years ago…McQuaid’s tale is about science, but also about culture, history and, one senses, our future” (Scientific American). Tasty offers a delicious smorgasbord of where taste originated and where it’s going—and why it changes by the day.

Making Habits Breaking Habits

Author: Jeremy Dean
Publisher: Da Capo Press
ISBN: 0738216089
Size: 36.47 MB
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Say you want to start going to the gym or practicing a musical instrument. How long should it take before you stop having to force it and start doing it automatically? The surprising answers are found in Making Habits, Breaking Habits, a psychologist’s popular examination of one of the most powerful and under-appreciated processes in the mind. Although people like to think that they are in control, much of human behavior occurs without any decision-making or conscious thought. Drawing on hundreds of fascinating studies, psychologist Jeremy Dean busts the myths to finally explain why seemingly easy habits, like eating an apple a day, can be surprisingly difficult to form, and how to take charge of your brain’s natural “autopilot” to make any change stick. Witty and intriguing, Making Habits, Breaking Habits shows how behavior is more than just a product of what you think. It is possible to bend your habits to your will—and be happier, more creative, and more productive.

Science

Author: Patricia Fara
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191655570
Size: 79.88 MB
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Science: A Four Thousand Year History rewrites science's past. Instead of focussing on difficult experiments and abstract theories, Patricia Fara shows how science has always belonged to the practical world of war, politics, and business. Rather than glorifying scientists as idealized heroes, she tells true stories about real people - men (and some women) who needed to earn their living, who made mistakes, and who trampled down their rivals in their quest for success. Fara sweeps through the centuries, from ancient Babylon right up to the latest hi-tech experiments in genetics and particle physics, illuminating the financial interests, imperial ambitions, and publishing enterprises that have made science the powerful global phenomenon that it is today. She also ranges internationally, illustrating the importance of scientific projects based around the world, from China to the Islamic empire, as well as the more familiar tale of science in Europe, from Copernicus to Charles Darwin and beyond. Above all, this four thousand year history challenges scientific supremacy, arguing controversially that science is successful not because it is always right - but because people have said that it is right.

Scientific Creativity

Author: Anna Mancini
Publisher: BUENOS BOOKS AMERICA LLC
ISBN: 193284824X
Size: 18.21 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Throughout history famous researchers had innovative dreams that sometimes won them a Nobel Prize. Why did they get these dreams? Based on 20 years innovative work on the connections between dreams and reality and on the role played by the whole body in the innovative dream process, this revolutionary book answers many questions about scientific creativity and how to boost it. It explains why innovative dreams, ideas and intuitions occur and what blocks them. It reveals how researchers can place themselves in the best conditions to become discoverers. It teaches a powerful technique to provoke innovative dreams, ideas and intuitions instead of waiting for the stroke of luck.

Handbook To Life In Medieval And Early Modern Japan

Author: William E. Deal
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195331265
Size: 57.83 MB
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andbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan spans the beginning of the Kamakura period in 1185 through the end of the Edo (Tokugawa) period in 1868. The medieval and early modern eras in Japan were largely shaped by the rise of the warrior class. After 1603, with the founding of the Tokugawa shogunate, Japanese culture changed dramatically, but as cities grew and merchants thrived, the warrior class became less dominant. By the end of the Edo period, Japan's insular feudal society and military government became irrelevant in an increasingly consumer-oriented economy and thriving urban culture. The contribution of military rulers, celebrated warriors, and cultural innovators to medieval and early modern Japanese culture are well documented. However, life at the village level also had a strong impact on the culture. Covering both levels of society, this comprehensive guide provides insightful information on well-known people and peasants, artisans, shopkeepers, and others outside the periphery of power. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan introduces the reader to the significant people and events-cultural, social, political, and historical-and the everyday experiences and elements of material culture during this time. Organized thematically, the text covers: History; Land, Environment, and Population; Government; Society and Economy; Warriors and Warfare; Religion; Philosophy, Education, and Science; Language and Literature; Performing Arts; Art and Architecture; Travel and Communication; Daily Life. Each chapter includes an extensive bibliography, and photographs and maps complement the text. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan provides all the essential information for anyone interested in Japanese history, society, or culture.