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Evolution And Posttraumatic Stress

Author: Chris Cantor
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135448507
Size: 71.90 MB
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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder remains one of the most contentious and poorly understood psychiatric disorders. Evolution and Posttraumatic Stress provides a valuable new perspective on its nature and causes. This book is the first to examine PTSD from an evolutionary perspective. Beginning with a review of conventional theories, Chris Cantor provides a clear and succinct overview of the history, clinical features and epidemiology of PTSD before going on to introduce and integrate evolutionary theory. Subjects discussed include: The evolution of human defensive behaviours A clinical perspective of PTSD Defence in overdrive: evolution, PTSD and parsimony This original presentation of PTSD as a defensive strategy describes how the use of evolutionary theory provides a more coherent and successful model for diagnosis, greatly improving understanding of usually mystifying symptoms. It will be of great interest to psychiatrists, psychotherapists, psychologists, and anthropologists.

Textbook Of Evolutionary Psychiatry And Psychosomatic Medicine

Author: Martin Brüne
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191027782
Size: 24.62 MB
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Psychiatry and Psychosomatic Medicine are concerned with medical conditions affecting brain, mind and behaviour in manifold ways. Traditional approaches have focused on a restricted array of potential causes of psychiatric and psychosomatic conditions - including adverse experiences such as trauma, neglect or abuse, genetic vulnerability and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Whilst essential for the understanding of mental disorders, these approaches have disregarded important questions such as why the human mind is vulnerable to dysfunction at all. The Textbook of Evolutionary Psychiatry and Psychosomatic Medicine updates and expands the previous edition to provide answers to these questions by emphasising an evolutionary perspective on psychiatric and psychosomatic conditions. It explains how the human brain/mind has been shaped by natural and sexual selection; why adaptations to environmental conditions in our evolutionary past may nowadays work in suboptimal ways; and how human cognition, emotions, and behaviour can be scientifically framed to improve our understanding of how people try to attain important biosocial goals pertaining to one's status in society, mating, eliciting and providing care, and maintaining rewarding relationships. The evolutionary topics relevant to the understanding of psychiatric and psychosomatic conditions include the concepts of genetic plasticity, life history theory, stress regulation and immunological aspects. In addition, it is argued that an evolutionary framework is also necessary to understand how psychotherapy and psychopharmacology work to improve the lives of patients with psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. The Textbook of Evolutionary Psychiatry and Psychosomatic Medicine is a valuable text for all students of Psychology, Medicine, and Psychotherapy who seek an understanding of the evolutionary issues surrounding health and disease.

Issues In Clinical Psychology Psychiatry And Counseling 2011 Edition

Author:
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1464963665
Size: 51.93 MB
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Issues in Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry, and Counseling: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry, and Counseling. The editors have built Issues in Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry, and Counseling: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry, and Counseling in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry, and Counseling: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Communication And Affect

Author: Patricia Pliner
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483270343
Size: 55.33 MB
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Communication and Affect: Language and Thought is a collection of papers presented at the second symposium on Communication and Affect held at Erindale College, University of Toronto, in March 1972. This volume contains a series of papers dealing with neobehavioristic approach to language and thought. The individual papers represent a broad spectrum of topics that are linked by their common neobehavioristic methodology and by their subject matter dealing with human verbal and symbolic behavior. Topics discussed in the compendium include the linguistic concept of marked and unmarked attributes and its relation to cognitive structure and affect; a comparison of the pictorial and verbal modes of representing information; the evolution of human cognition; empirical and theoretical approaches to the question of localization of language functions in the human brain; and the nature of implicit communications in experimental situations. Psychologists, behavioral scientists, linguists, and researchers in the field of human communication will find the book invaluable.

Treatment For Posttraumatic Stress Disorder In Military And Veteran Populations

Author: Committee on the Assessment of Ongoing Effects in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309254213
Size: 78.79 MB
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Prior to the military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, wars and conflicts have been characterized by such injuries as infectious diseases and catastrophic gunshot wounds. However, the signature injuries sustained by United States military personnel in these most recent conflicts are blast wounds and the psychiatric consequences to combat, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which affects an estimated 13 to 20 percent of U.S. service members who have fought in Iraq or Afghanistan since 2001. PTSD is triggered by a specific traumatic event - including combat - which leads to symptoms such as persistent re-experiencing of the event; emotional numbing or avoidance of thoughts, feelings, conversations, or places associated with the trauma; and hyperarousal, such as exaggerated startle responses or difficulty concentrating. As the U.S. reduces its military involvement in the Middle East, the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Veterans Affairs (VA) anticipate that increasing numbers of returning veterans will need PTSD services. As a result, Congress asked the DoD, in consultation with the VA, to sponsor an IOM study to assess both departments' PTSD treatment programs and services. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Initial Assessment is the first of two mandated reports examines some of the available programs to prevent, diagnose, treat, and rehabilitate those who have PTSD and encourages further research that can help to improve PTSD care.

A Natural History Of Rape

Author: Randy Thornhill
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262700832
Size: 60.21 MB
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A biologist and an anthropologist use evolutionary biology to explain the causes and inform the prevention of rape.

Posttraumatic And Acute Stress Disorders

Author: Matthew Friedman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319150669
Size: 11.36 MB
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A handy, easy-to-read reference for the diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic and acute stress disorders, this important 6th edition has been revised and updated extensively, offering a wealth of new information in a concise format of 6 sections. The new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for PTSD and Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) are discussed, in depth, in Chapters 2 and 6, respectively. In addition, updated tables listing instruments for assessing diagnosis and symptom severity are cited and annotated in seven appendices, as in previous editions. Chapters 3-5 have been revised to keep pace with the ever-expanding literature on treatment of PTSD. This is especially true in Chapter 4 where, in addition to a focus on evidence-based cognitive-behavioral therapy, CBT and other individual psychosocial treatments (e.g. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, EMDR), the growing literature is presented on couples, family, group and school-based treatments for adults, children and adolescents. Chapter 5 reviews the pathophysiology of PTSD and evidence-based pharmacotherapy for the disorder. Chapter 6 addresses both normal acute stress reactions and clinically significant ASD, as well as effective interventions for each. A comprehensive, sophisticated, practical reference for all clinicians, Posttraumatic and Acute Stress Disorders, 6th Edition is an invaluable resource designed to guide the best clinical attention for individuals suffering from posttraumatic an d acute stress disorders.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Is A Eurocentric Construct A Discussion

Author: Leonard Kabongo
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3668036527
Size: 25.66 MB
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Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2015 in the subject Psychology - Personality Psychology, grade: B, University of Manchester (HRCI), course: Global Health, language: English, abstract: According to the American Psychiatric Association (2013), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is defined in the DSMV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders Firth Edition) as a group of psychiatric related symptoms after exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence by direct experience, witnessing or distant learning of a traumatic event that occurred to a close person. These symptoms include distressing memories and dreams of the traumatic event, dissociative reactions and marked psychological reactions to internal and external cues that symbolize the event, avoidance of or efforts to avoid distressing memories, thoughts or feelings, negative alterations in cognitions like dissociative amnesia and feeling of detachment, angry outbursts, irritability behavior, recklessness, hypervigilance and sleep disturbance. The diagnosis of PTSD is established when the above mentioned symptoms persist for one month and exhibit clinical manifestations, significant distress of impairment in social and occupational functioning not associated with a substance abuse (alcohol or drug). Introduced in the 1980 in the DSMIII after the Vietnam War, PTSD concept was however not new in the history of Medicine. It has evolved historically from the time of Homer and has been recognized and described for the past century. The holocaust and more recently the American World Trade Center attack has brought into the trauma theory with more publications been released. From its definition in the DSMV, PTSD is viewed as a result of an abrupt, singled traumatic event and its consequences on the human psyche resulting in pschychiatric symptoms as I mentioned above. From this angle, the definition of PTSD is non inclusive expressing an individualized, monoculture and unilateral historic considerations which is argued as a Euro-American culture-bound syndrome that does not apply traditional cultures. On the other hand, for other psychologists and psychiatrists the new concept of PTSD (as defined in the DSMV) is thought to have provided an operational definition applicable for many clinical situations, showed a link between physical pain and psychological event, recognized the extend of a traumatic exposure and more importantly fertilized

Handbook Of Exposure Therapies

Author: David C.S. Richard
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080467814
Size: 41.30 MB
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Exposure Therapy refers to any clinical intervention in which a client directly confronts a source of fear. Since high levels of anxiety can not be maintained indefinitely, repeated exposure leads to decreased anxiety. This type of treatment is effective with phobias, post traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorders, panic, generalized anxiety, and several other disorders. It's also been found to be effective in helping to treat substance abuse. Although exposure-based treatments have been extensively researched and reported in the literature, there is no single comprehensive treatment of exposure therapies. Writings tend to be limited to larger pieces on treating specific disorders or types of patients. A comprehensive book on the use of these treatments across patient disorders will be of great use to practitioners. The book is divided into three sections: Foundation, Applications, and Issues. Foundation chapters considers theoretical and assessment issues. Applications chapters will discuss research literature on each disorder having been proven to be successfully treated with exposure therapy. Issue chapters will discuss liability issues, false memory syndrome, and the use of computers and virtual reality in exposure therapy. *Covers the broad range of exposure therapies in one comprehensive source *Provides an integrated look at exposure therapy across a variety of disorders *Each such chapter will include a case study *Blends literature review and practice guidelines