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Evolution In Changing Environments

Author: Richard Levins
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691080628
Size: 35.32 MB
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On theories and models. Strategies of adaptation. The theory of the niche. The species in space. The genetic system. From micro to macro evolution.

Evolution In Changing Environments

Author: Richard Levins
Publisher: Monographs in Population Biolo
ISBN:
Size: 75.88 MB
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On theories and models. Strategies of adaptation. The theory of the niche. The species in space. The genetic system. From micro to macro evolution.

Evolution In Changing Environments

Author: Richard Levins
Publisher: Monographs in Population Biolo
ISBN:
Size: 30.44 MB
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On theories and models. Strategies of adaptation. The theory of the niche. The species in space. The genetic system. From micro to macro evolution.

The Evolution Of Genetic And Epigenetic Diversity In Changing Environments

Author: Oana Carja
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 79.62 MB
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The production and maintenance of genetic and phenotypic diversity under temporally fluctuating selection has been a major focus of study in population genetics for more than five decades. In this thesis, I use analytical and computational models to gain insight into the relative roles of genetic and epigenetic diversity in adaptation to changing selection. The different chapters provide complimentary perspectives on the signatures of environmental volatility in the patterns of variation. Chapter 2 explores the evolution of epigenetic variation and its role in adaptation under changing selection pressures. Chapter 3 investigates the effect of recombination on the geometric mean principle under different environmental regimens and fitness landscapes. Two chapters of this thesis, Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 explore the evolution of phenotypic switching, a phenomenon widely documented in viruses, yeast and bacteria, where offspring can express a phenotype different from those of their parents. These chapters highlight the interplay of spatial and temporal environmental variability, offering new insights into how migration can influence the evolution of stochastic switching rates, epigenetic inheritance, and sources of phenotypic variation. Chapter 6 compares and contrasts how fluctuating selection shapes the rates of recombination, mutation and migration, highlighting surprising similarities in their evolutionary dynamics to changing selection. This chapter offers new insights into the role of the environmental duration, shape and randomness in predicting the long-term evolutionary advantage of the forces of recombination, mutation and migration. The models and analyses presented here provide a more complete understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic diversity in adaptation to changing selection pressures.

Niche Construction

Author: F. John Odling-Smee
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400847265
Size: 34.85 MB
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The seemingly innocent observation that the activities of organisms bring about changes in environments is so obvious that it seems an unlikely focus for a new line of thinking about evolution. Yet niche construction--as this process of organism-driven environmental modification is known--has hidden complexities. By transforming biotic and abiotic sources of natural selection in external environments, niche construction generates feedback in evolution on a scale hitherto underestimated--and in a manner that transforms the evolutionary dynamic. It also plays a critical role in ecology, supporting ecosystem engineering and influencing the flow of energy and nutrients through ecosystems. Despite this, niche construction has been given short shrift in theoretical biology, in part because it cannot be fully understood within the framework of standard evolutionary theory. Wedding evolution and ecology, this book extends evolutionary theory by formally including niche construction and ecological inheritance as additional evolutionary processes. The authors support their historic move with empirical data, theoretical population genetics, and conceptual models. They also describe new research methods capable of testing the theory. They demonstrate how their theory can resolve long-standing problems in ecology, particularly by advancing the sorely needed synthesis of ecology and evolution, and how it offers an evolutionary basis for the human sciences. Already hailed as a pioneering work by some of the world's most influential biologists, this is a rare, potentially field-changing contribution to the biological sciences.

Applied Ecology And Human Dimensions In Biological Conservation

Author: Luciano M. Verdade
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642547516
Size: 62.11 MB
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This book provides both the conceptual basis and technological tools that are necessary to identify and solve problems related to biodiversity governance. The authors discuss intriguing evolutionary questions, which involve the sometimes surprising adaptive capacity of certain organisms to dwell in altered and/or changing environments that apparently lost most of their structure and functionality. Space and time heterogeneities are considered in order to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of species and the various processes that mold them. The book also discusses at which level—from genes to the landscape, including individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems—men should intervene in nature in order to prevent the loss of biodiversity.